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Advances in Virology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 301386, 9 pages
Research Article

The Antiviral Effect of High-Molecular Weight Poly-Gamma-Glutamate against Newcastle Disease Virus on Murine Macrophage Cells

1College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Cavite State University, 4122 Cavite, Philippines
2College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Republic of Korea
3Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong 4202, Bangladesh

Received 23 September 2014; Revised 29 November 2014; Accepted 30 November 2014; Published 30 December 2014

Academic Editor: Subhash Verma

Copyright © 2014 Melbourne Talactac et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study demonstrates the capacity of HM-γ-PGA treatment to significantly protect murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7 cells) against NDV infection. Such protection can be explained by the induction of antiviral state of HM-γ-PGA in RAW 264.7 cells via TLR4-mediated IRF-3, IRF-7, IFN-β, and IFN-related gene induction as shown in time-dependent changes in mRNA expression confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Moreover, the present research also showed that HM-γ-PGA can induce proinflammatory cytokine secretion in RAW 264.7 as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Therefore, our findings suggest that HM-γ-PGA can be a potential antiviral substance that can inhibit NDV infection through its stimulation of antiviral state on RAW 264.7 cells. These results have been consistent with the previous studies showing that HM-γ-PGA can protect RAW 264.7 cells and mice against influenza infection. However, it should be noted that although murine macrophage cells are susceptible to NDV, they are not the natural host cells of the virus; thus further in vivo and in vitro studies involving chicken and chicken immune cells are needed to fully assess the efficacy and applicability of HM-γ-PGA in the poultry industry.