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Advances in Virology
Volume 2015, Article ID 616898, 5 pages
Research Article

Comparison of β-Propiolactone and Formalin Inactivation on Antigenicity and Immune Response of West Nile Virus

1Arbovirology Group, Entomology and Filariasis Division, Regional Medical Research Centre, ICMR, Northeast Region, Post Box No. 105, Dibrugarh, Assam 786001, India
2Department of Biotechnology, Tocklai Tea Research Institute, TRA, Jorhat, Assam 785008, India

Received 31 May 2015; Revised 30 July 2015; Accepted 18 August 2015

Academic Editor: Trudy Morrison

Copyright © 2015 Pritom Chowdhury et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


West Nile Virus (WNV) is a pathogenic arbovirus that belongs to genus Flavivirus under family Flaviviridae. Till now there are no approved vaccines against WNV for human use. In this study, the effect of two alkylating agents, formaldehyde and β-PL, generally used for inactivated vaccine preparation, was assessed on the basis of antigenic and immunogenic potential of the inactivated WNV. Lineage 5 WNV isolates were inactivated by both formalin and β-PL treatments. Inactivation was confirmed by repeated passage in BHK-21 cell line and infant mice. Viruses inactivated by both the treatments showed higher antigenicity. Immune response in mice model showed serum anti-WNV antibody titre was moderately higher in formalin inactivated antigen compared to β-PL inactivated antigen. However, no significant differences were observed in neutralization antibody titre. In conclusion, we can state that both formaldehyde and β-PL inactivation processes were found to be equally efficient for inactivation of WNV. However, they need to be compared with other inactivating agents along with study on cell mediated immune response.