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Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications publishes research in all aspects of bioinorganic chemistry, including bioorganometallic chemistry and applied bioinorganic chemistry, and applications in fields such as medicine and immunology.
Chief Editor, Professor Fanizzi, is based at the Università del Salento. His research interests and current projects are related to the study of transition metals (Platinum in particular), coordination organometallic and bioinorganic chemistry, and the applications of high field NMR Spectroscopy.
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Spectral, Molecular Modeling, and Biological Activity Studies on New Schiff’s Base of Acenaphthaquinone Transition Metal Complexes
The newly synthesized Schiff’s base derivative, N-allyl-2-(2-oxoacenaphthylen-1(2H)-ylidene)hydrazine-1-carbothioamide, has been characterized by different spectral techniques. Its reaction with Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) acetate led to the formation of 1 : 1 (M:L) complexes. The IR and NMR spectral data revealed keto-thione form for the free ligand. On chelation with Co(II) and Ni(II), it behaved as mononegative and neutral tridentate via O, N1, and S donors, respectively, while it showed neutral bidentate mode via O and N1 atoms with Zn(II). The electronic spectra indicated that all the isolated complexes have an octahedral structure. The thermal gravimetric analyses confirmed the suggested formula and the presence of coordinated water molecules. The XRD pattern of the metal complexes showed that both Co(II) and Ni(II) have amorphous nature, while Zn(II) complex has monoclinic crystallinity with an average size of 9.10 nm. DFT modeling of the ligand and complexes supported the proposed structures. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gap, ΔEH-L, of the ligand complexes was 1.96–2.49 eV range where HAAT < Zn(II) < Ni(II) < Co(II). The antioxidant activity investigation showed that the ligand and Zn(II) complex have high activity than other complexes, 88.5 and 88.6%, respectively. Accordingly, the antitumor activity of isolated compounds was examined against the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2), where both HAAT and Zn(II) complex exhibited very strong activity, IC50 6.45 ± 0.25 and 6.39 ± 0.18 μM, respectively.
Use of Different Natural Products to Control Growth of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Green Solvent Emulsion, Characterization, and Their Photocatalytic Application
Water, one of the crucial and the pillar resources to every living thing, could be polluted day to day by different causes such as expansion in industrialization, rapid increment in population size, the threat of climate, and growth of urbanization. The existence of a number of organic dyes, detergents, and pesticides from industrial effluents could lead to severe diseases and even to the death of human beings. Currently, remediation of those hazardous organic contaminants using semiconductor metal oxide catalysts has received extensive attention in recent years. Among the numerous nanometal oxides, titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) have been well known as a significant photocatalytic material due to their suitable physiochemical behaviors such as stability, conductivity, high surface area to volume ratio, structure, and porosity nature at the nanoscale level. TiO2 semiconductor nanoparticles could be synthesized via several physiochemical approaches; among those, the biogenic technique is the most selective one which involves the synthesis of NPs using different templates. Biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles is an environmentally friendly protocol that involves the use of different parts and types of biogenic sources such as bacteria, fungi, yeast, virus, and green plants or the byproducts of their metabolism, which act as both reducing and stabilizing agents. TiO2 NPs obtained via the biogenic method provide a potential application for the degradation of organic dyes and other pollutants in wastewater. This method of synthesis of NPs has been given a great attention by researchers due to their nontoxicity, low cost, environmental friendliness, the usage of green solvents, and simplicity of the process. This review focuses on summarizing the synthesis of TiO2 NPs using various biogenic sources, characterization, and their photocatalytic applications for the degradation of different wastes and organic dyes from polluted water.
Quercetin as a Precursor for the Synthesis of Novel Nanoscale Cu (II) Complex as a Catalyst for Alcohol Oxidation with High Antibacterial Activity
Quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is one of the dietary flavonoids, distributed in medicinal plants, vegetables, and fruits. Quercetin has the ability to bind with several metal ions to increase its biological activities. In the last two decades, quercetin has attracted considerable attention due to the biological and pharmaceutical activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer. In the present study, quercetin and ethanolamine were used for the synthesis Schiff base complex, which was characterized by IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The Schiff base has been employed as a ligand for the synthesis of novel nanoscale Cu (II) complex. The product was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, FESEM, and XRD. Significantly, the product showed remarkable catalytic activity towards the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols. The antibacterial activity of the final product was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram‐positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram‐negative) bacteria using an inhibition zone test. The synthesized nanoscale Cu (II) complex exhibited a strong antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from the Extracts of Fruit Peel of Citrus tangerina, Citrus sinensis, and Citrus limon for Antibacterial Activities
Wide application of nanoparticles motivates the need for synthesising them. Here, a nontoxic, eco-friendly, and cost-effective method has been established for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts of lemon peel (Citrus limon), green orange peel (Citrus sinensis), and orange peel (Citrus tangerina). The synthesised nanoparticles have been characterised using UV-visible absorptionspectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The UV-visible absorption spectrum of these synthesised silver nanoparticles shows an absorption peak at around 440 nm. TEM images show different shaped particles with various sizes. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was appraised by a well-diffusion method and it was observed that the green synthesised silver nanoparticles have an effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The outcome of this study could be beneficial for nanotechnology-based biomedical applications.
Origin of the MRI Contrast in Natural and Hydrogel Formulation of Pineapple Juice
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often requires contrast agents to improve the visualization in some tissues and organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. In this latter case, instead of intravascular administration, oral agents can be used. Natural oral contrast agents, such as fruit juice, have the advantages of better taste, tolerability, and lower price with respect to the artificial agents. We have characterized the relaxometry profiles of pineapple juice in order to understand the origin of the increase in relaxation rates (and thus of the MRI contrast) in reference to its content of manganese ions. Furthermore, we have characterized the relaxometry profiles of pineapple juice in the presence of alginate in different amounts; the interaction of the manganese ions with alginate slows down their reorientation time to some extent, with a subsequent increase in the relaxation rates. The relaxometry profiles were also compared with those of manganese(II) solutions in 50 mmol/dm3 sodium acetate solution (same pH of pineapple juice), which revealed sizable differences, mostly in the number of water molecules coordinated to the metal ion, their lifetimes, and in the constant of the Fermi-contact interaction. Finally, the fit of the transverse relaxivity shows that the increased viscosity in the hydrogel formulations can improve significantly the negative contrast of pineapple juice at the magnetic fields relevant for clinical MRI.
Novel Gallium(III), Germanium(IV), and Hafnium(IV) Folate Complexes and Their Spectroscopic, Thermal Decomposition, Morphological, and Biological Characteristics
In this study, we describe novel gallium(III), germanium(IV), and hafnium(IV) folate complexes, including their synthesis and analyses. The synthesized folate complexes were also subject to thermal analysis (TGA) to better examine their thermal degradation and kinetic properties. The folate complexes had high stability and were nonspontaneous. The Coats–Redfern and Horowitz–Metzger equations were used to determine thermodynamic parameters and describe the kinetic properties. These complexes were synthesized through the chemical interactions in neutralized media between the folic acid drug ligand (FAH2) with GaCl3, GeCl4, and HfCl4 metal salts at 1 : 2 (metal : ligand) molar ratio. The conductance measurements have low values due to their nonelectrolytic behavior. The X-ray powder diffraction solid powder pattern revealed a semicrystalline nature. In vitro, we screened the synthesized folate chelates for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The inhibition of four bacterial and two fungi pathogens (E. coli, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, A. flavus, and Candida albicans) was improved using a folic acid drug relative to the control drug.