Article of the Year 2020
High Throughput Approaches to Unravel the Mechanism of Action of a New Vanadium-Based Compound against Trypanosoma cruziRead the full article
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications publishes research in all aspects of bioinorganic chemistry, including bioorganometallic chemistry and applied bioinorganic chemistry, and applications in fields such as medicine and immunology.
Chief Editor, Professor Fanizzi, is based at the Università del Salento. His research interests and current projects are related to the study of transition metals (Platinum in particular), coordination organometallic and bioinorganic chemistry, and the applications of high field NMR Spectroscopy.
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Spectroscopic and Theoretical Studies of Hg(II) Complexation with Some Dicysteinyl Tetrapeptides
Tetrapeptides containing a Cys-Gly-Cys motif and a propensity to adopt a reverse-turn structure were synthesized to evaluate how O-, N-, H-, and aromatic π donor groups might contribute to mercury(II) complex formation. Tetrapeptides Xaa-Cys-Gly-Cys, where Xaa is glycine, glutamate, histidine, or tryptophan, were prepared and reacted with mercury(II) chloride. Their complexation with mercury(II) was studied by spectroscopic methods and computational modeling. UV-vis studies confirmed that mercury(II) binds to the cysteinyl thiolates as indicated by characteristic ligand-to-metal-charge-transfer transitions for bisthiolated S-Hg-S complexes, which correspond to 1 : 1 mercury-peptide complex formation. ESI-MS data also showed dominant 1 : 1 mercury-peptide adducts that are consistent with double deprotonations from the cysteinyl thiols to form thiolates. These complexes exhibited a strong positive circular dichroism band at 210 nm and a negative band at 193 nm, indicating that these peptides adopted a β-turn structure after binding mercury(II). Theoretical studies confirmed that optimized 1 : 1 mercury-peptide complexes adopt β-turns stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds. These optimized structures also illustrate how specific N-terminal side-chain donor groups can assume intramolecular interactions and contribute to complex stability. Fluorescence quenching results provided supporting data that the indole donor group could interact with the coordinated mercury. The results from this study indicate that N-terminal side-chain residues containing carboxylate, imidazole, or indole groups can participate in stabilizing dithiolated mercury(II) complexes. These structural insights on peripheral mercury-peptide interactions provide additional understanding of the chemistry of mercury(II) with side-chain donor groups in peptides.
Biosynthesis of Organic Nanocomposite Using Pistacia vera L. Hull: An Efficient Antimicrobial Agent
Here presented a quick and easy synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs). Pistachio hull extract has been used as a reducing and stabilizing agent in the preparation of CuNPs. This biosynthesis is a kind of supporter of the environment because chemical agents were not used to making nanoparticles, and on the other hand, it prevents the release of pistachio waste in nature and its adverse effects on nature. The biosynthesized CuNPs and CuNPs/silver Schiff base nanocomposite (CSS NC) were characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). CuNP and CSS NC antimicrobial activity was examined by both well diffusion and determination MIC methods against four bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and two fungi Aspergillus Niger and Candida albicans. CuNPs and CSS NC showed significant antimicrobial activity on the samples, preventing the growth of bacteria and fungi at very low concentrations. CuNPs and CSS NC had the greatest effect on Escherichia coli bacteria and Aspergillus niger fungi. Phenolic compounds are one of the most important antioxidants that are involved in various fields, including pharmacy. Pistacia vera hull is a rich source of phenolic compounds. In this study, the most phenolic compound in Pistacia vera hull is gallic acid and rutin, which has been identified by HPLC analysis. In this study, Pistacia vera hull essential oil analysis was performed by the GC-MS method, in which α-pinene, D-limonene, and isobornyl acetate compounds constitute the highest percentage of Pistacia vera hull essential oil.
Diagnostic Accuracy of Procalcitonin for Bacterial Infection in Liver Failure: A Meta-Analysis
The purpose of our studies was to systematically assess the accuracy and clinical value of plasma calcitonin in patients with liver failure complicated with bacterial infection. In this study, we included prospective observational studies or randomized controlled trials on PCT. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Heterogeneity, pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), pooled sensitivity, pooled specificity, pooled positive likelihood ratio, pooled negative likelihood ratio, the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC), and metaregression analysis were performed using Stata16.0 software. Consequently, the studies revealed substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 96, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 94–99). The results of meta-analysis using random effect models suggested that the combined DOR was 10.67 (95% CI = 3.73–30.53). In addition, the threshold effect analysis showed that the threshold effect was 0.23 and the correlation coefficient was −0.48, indicating that there was no threshold effect. In the forest map, the DOR of each study and the combined DOR are not distributed along the same line, and Q = 2.2 × 1014, . Furthermore, the metaregression analysis of PCT study design, bacterial infection site, and mean age displayed that the values were >0.05. The combined sensitivity was 0.77 (95% CI = 0.54–0.90), the combined specificity was 0.76 (95% CI = 0.70–0.82), the combined positive likelihood ratio was 3.25 (95% CI = 2.33–4.52), the combined negative likelihood ratio was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.14–0.67), and the combined AUC was 0.80 (95% CI = 0.76–0.83). In conclusion, PCT has moderate diagnostic value for adult liver failure complicated with bacterial infection, and it is a better auxiliary diagnostic index for liver failure with bacterial infection. However, the results of procalcitonin must be carefully interpreted combined with medical history, physical examination, and microbiological assessment.
Bioinorganic Synthesis of Polyrhodanine Stabilized Fe3O4/Graphene Oxide in Microbial Supernatant Media for Anticancer and Antibacterial Applications
Polyrhodanines have been broadly utilized in diverse fields due to their attractive features. The effect of polyrhodanine- (PR-) based materials on human cells can be considered a controversial matter, while many contradictions exist. In this study, we focused on the synthesis of polyrhodanine/Fe3O4 modified by graphene oxide and the effect of kombucha (Ko) supernatant on results. The general structure of synthetic compounds was determined in detail through Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Also, obtained compounds were morphologically, magnetically, and chemically characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The antibacterial effects of all synthesized nanomaterials were done according to CLSI against four infamous pathogens. Also, the cytotoxic effects of the synthesized compounds on the human liver cancer cell line (Hep-G2) were assessed by MTT assay. Our results showed that Go/Fe has the highest average inhibitory effect against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and this compound possesses the least antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus. Considering the viability percent of cells in the PR/GO/Fe3O4 compound and comparing it with GO/Fe3O4, it can be understood that the toxic effects of polyrhodanine can diminish the metabolic activity of cells at higher concentrations (mostly more than 50 µg/mL), and PR/Fe3O4/Ko exhibited some promotive effects on cell growth, which enhanced the viability percent to more than 100%. Similarly, the cell viability percent of PR/GO/Fe3O4/KO compared to PR/GO/Fe3O4 is much higher, which can be attributed to the presence of kombucha in the compound. Consequently, based on the results, it can be concluded that this novel polyrhodanine-based nanocompound can act as drug carriers due to their low toxic effects and may open a new window on the antibacterial agents.
S100A8/A9 Molecular Complexes Promote Cancer Migration and Invasion via the p38 MAPK Pathway in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one type of malignancy associated with migration and invasion through a currently unclear mechanism. We previously discovered S100A8/A9 levels were roughly elevated in the plasma of NPC patients as the promising biomarkers. However, their expressions and underlying functions in NPC tissues are still unknown. In the present study, we analyzed 49 NPC tissues and 20 chronic pharyngitis (CP) tissues. Immunohistochemical staining was performed in different tissues and analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U test statistically. Transwell migration and invasion experiments were further performed to determine S100A8/A9 effects on NPC. Our results showed that S100A8/A9 in NPC tissues were significantly higher than those in CP tissues, closely associated with NPC clinical stages. Intriguingly, exogenous S100A8/A9 protein stimulation could dramatically enhance NPC migration and invasion abilities. In addition, p38 MAPK pathway blockade could diminish the migration and invasion of NPC cells stimulated by S100A8/A9 proteins. The downstream tumor invasion and migration associated proteins (e.g., MMP7) were also elevated in NPC tissues, consistent with S100A8/A9 overexpression. Taken together, our present findings suggest that the secreted soluble inflammatory factors S100A8/A9 might promote cancer migration and invasion via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway along with invasion/migration associated proteins overexpression in the tumor microenvironment of NPC. This may shed light on the mechanism understanding of NPC prognosis and provide more novel clues for NPC diagnosis and therapy.
Can the Self-Assembling of Dicarboxylate Pt(IV) Prodrugs Influence Their Cell Uptake?
The possibility of spontaneous self-assembly of dicarboxylato Pt(IV) prodrugs and the consequences on their uptake in cancer cells have been evaluated in different aqueous solutions. Four Pt(IV) complexes, namely, (OC-6-33)-diacetatodiamminedichloridoplatinum(IV), Ace, (OC-6-33)-diamminedibutanoatodichloridoplatinum(IV), But, (OC-6-33)-diamminedichloridodihexanoatoplatinum(IV), Hex, and (OC-6-33)-diamminedichloridodioctanoatoplatinum(IV), Oct, have been dispersed in i) milliQ water, ii) phosphate buffered saline, and iii) complete cell culture media (RPMI 1640 or DMEM) containing fetal bovine serum (FBS). The samples have been analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) to measure the size and distribution of the nanoparticles possibly present. The zeta potential offered an indication of the stability of the resulting aggregates. In the case of the most lipophilic compounds of the series, namely, Oct and to a lesser extent Hex, the formation of nanosized aggregates has been observed, in particular at the highest concentration tested (10 μM). The cell culture media had the effect to disaggregate these nanoparticles, mainly by virtue of their albumin content, able to interact with the organic chains via noncovalent (hydrophobic) interactions. For Oct, at the highest concentration employed for the uptake tests (10 μM), the combination between passive diffusion and endocytosis of the self-assembled nanoparticles makes the cellular uptake higher than in the presence of passive diffusion only. During the study of cellular uptake on A2780 ovarian cancer cells pretreated with cytochalasin D, a statistically significant inhibition of endocytosis was observed for Oct. In these experimental conditions, the relationship between uptake and lipophilicity becomes almost linear instead of exponential. Since Oct anticancer prodrug is active at nanomolar concentrations, where the aggregation in culture media is almost abolished, this phenomenon should not significantly impact its antiproliferative activity.