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Mg-Al Mixed Oxide Adsorbent Synthesized Using FCT Template for Fluoride Removal from Drinking Water
To make full use of natural waste, a novel Mg-Al mixed oxide adsorbent was synthesized by the dip-calcination method using the fluff of the chinar tree (FCT) and an Mg(II) and Al(III) chloride solution as raw materials. The adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of the Mg/Al molar ratio and calcination temperature on the performance of the novel Mg-Al mixed oxide adsorbent were investigated. The optimized Mg-Al mixed oxide adsorbent had a Langmuir adsorption capacity of 53 mg/g. This adsorption capacity was higher than that of the separate Mg oxide and Al oxide. The synergy between Mg and Al is beneficial to the adsorption performance of the material. The fluoride adsorption capacity of the optimized Mg-Al mixed oxide adsorbent is only slightly affected by ions such as Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Na+, and K+ and is excellent for use in recycling and real water. The hydroxyl groups on the surface of the Mg-Al mixed oxide adsorbent play a key role in the adsorption of fluorine. The as-obtained novel Mg-Al mixed oxide adsorbent is an efficient and environmentally friendly agent for fluoride removal from drinking water.
Cu(II) and Ni(II) Complexes with New Tridentate NNS Thiosemicarbazones: Synthesis, Characterisation, DNA Interaction, and Antibacterial Activity
This paper reports the synthesis and detailed characterisation of copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes with tridentate thiosemicarbazone ligands H2L1 and H2L2 derived from 2-acetylpyrazine. The ligands and their metal complexes were characterised by different physicochemical techniques, including elemental and thermogravimetric analysis; UV-Vis, IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy; molar conductance measurements; and mass spectrometry. The crystal structure of the H2L1 ligand was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The spectral data showed that the thiosemicarbazone behaves as an NNS tridentate ligand through the nitrogen atoms of the azomethine group and pyrazine ring and the sulphur atom of the thioamide group. Elemental and thermal analyses indicated that the obtained metal complexes had a 1 : 1 stoichiometry (metal-ligand). The interactions between these complexes and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were studied by electronic absorption and viscosity measurements. The activities of these compounds against oxidative DNA cleavage were examined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes can wind DNA strands through groove interactions and promote strand breakage of the plasmid pmCherry under oxidative stress conditions. Moreover, all the complexes could interact more strongly with DNA than could with the free ligands. Finally, the antibacterial activities of the ligands and their complexes were determined by in vitro tests against Gram-positive bacterial strains (S. aureus ATCC 25923, L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115, and B. cereus ATCC 10876) and Gram-negative bacterial strains (E. coli ATCC 25922, S. typhimurium ATCC 14028, and K. pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146) using the broth microdilution method. The metal complexes showed greater antimicrobial activities than the precursor ligands against some of the microorganisms.
Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Murraya koenigii (L.) against Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens
Development of multidrug resistance among pathogens has become a global problem for chemotherapy of bacterial infections. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESβL-) producing enteric bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are the two major groups of problematic MDR bacteria that have evolved rapidly in the recent past. In this study, the aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii leaves was used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized MK-AgNPs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, SEM, and TEM, and their antibacterial potential was evaluated on multiple ESβL-producing enteric bacteria and MRSA. The nanoparticles were predominantly found to be spheroidal with particle size distribution in the range of 5–20 nm. There was 60.86% silver content in MK-AgNPs. Evaluation of antibacterial activity by the disc-diffusion assay revealed that MK-AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of test pathogens with varying sized zones of inhibition. The MICs of MK-AgNPs against both MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains were 32 μg/ml, while for ESβL-producing E. coli, it ranged from 32 to 64 μg/ml. The control strain of E. coli (ECS) was relatively more sensitive with an MIC of 16 μg/ml. The MBCs were in accordance with the respective MICs. Analysis of growth kinetics revealed that the growth of all tested S. aureus strains was inhibited (∼90%) in presence of 32 μg/ml of MK-AgNPs. The sensitive strain of E. coli (ECS) showed least resistance to MK-AgNPs with >81% inhibition at 16 μg/ml. The present investigation revealed an encouraging result on in vitro efficacy of green synthesized MK-AgNPs and needed further in vivo assessment for its therapeutic efficacy against MDR bacteria.
Nonfunctionalized Cation of an Ionic Liquid as a Ligand in the Synthesis of a New Coordination Compound and Assessment of Its Biological Activity
Literature evidences reveal the affinity of ionic liquids for biomembranes that they are readily absorbed into the cell, resulting in a variety of biological effects, including broad antibacterial potential and anticancer activity. Recent research directions considered the ions of this class of compounds as a new choice of ligands in the synthesis of transition metal complexes for various applications. Based on this, the present work reports the synthesis, structural characterization, and in vitro antibacterial activities of a tetrahedral hexacationic Co(II) complex formed by coordinating with the cation of an ionic liquid, N-butyl-4,4-bipyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([C4Bip][Tf2N]). It has been demonstrated by the isolation and characterization of tetrakis-(N-butyl-4,4′-bipyridinium)cobalt(II)dichloride-tetrakis-(bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, ([(C4Bip)4Co]Cl2(Tf2N)4). The ligand and complex are characterized spectroscopically (1H, 13C, and 19F NMR, ESI MS, ICP OES), and by CHNS elemental analysis, halide estimation, and conductivity studies. The antibacterial activities of the compounds against two bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), are screened using the agar well-diffusion method and were compared with a reference (gentamicin). The metal complex demonstrated better inhibition than the ionic liquid and the reference.
Effects of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Polyhistidine Tag on the Stability and Function of the Thermophilic P450 CYP119
Biocatalysts are sought-after in synthesis of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals due to their high regioselectivity and enantioselectivity. Among biocatalysts, heme-containing cytochrome P450 (P450) oxygenases are an attractive target since they catalyze oxidation of “unactivated” carbon-hydrogen bonds with high efficiency. CYP119 is an acidothermophilic P450 from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, which has the potential to be widely used as a biocatalyst since it shows activity at high temperatures and low pH. Polyhistidine tags (His-tags) are widely used to simplify purification of proteins. However, His-tags can cause changes to protein structure and function. Here, we demonstrate the effects of His-tags on CYP119. To this end, the His-tags were cloned at the N-terminus or C-terminus of the CYP119, and His-tagged proteins were expressed and isolated. The thermostability and peroxidase activity of His-tagged CYP119s were tested and compared to wild type CYP119. Results indicated that while addition of His-tags increased the yield and simplified isolation of CYP119, they also influenced the electronic structure of active site and the activity of the protein. We show that N-terminal His-tagged CYP119 has desirable properties and potential to be used in industrial applications, but mechanistic studies using this protein need careful interpretation since the His-tag affects electronic properties of the active site heme iron.
Encapsulation of Gold Nanorods with Porphyrins for the Potential Treatment of Cancer and Bacterial Diseases: A Critical Review
Cancer and bacterial diseases have been the most incidental diseases to date. According to the World Health Report 2018, at least every family is affected by cancer around the world. In 2012, 14.1 million people were affected by cancer, and that figure is bound to increase to 21.6 million in 2030. Medicine therefore sorts out ways of treatment using conventional methods which have been proven to have many side effects. Researchers developed photothermal and photodynamic methods to treat both cancer and bacterial diseases. These methods pose fewer effects on the biological systems but still no perfect method has been synthesized. The review serves to explore porphyrin and gold nanorods to be used in the treatment of cancer and bacterial diseases: porphyrins as photosensitizers and gold nanorods as delivery agents. In addition, the review delves into ways of incorporating photothermal and photodynamic therapy aimed at producing a less toxic, more efficacious, and specific compound for the treatment.