Synthesis of Amino Acid Schiff Base Nickel (II) Complexes as Potential Anticancer Drugs In VitroRead the full article
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications publishes research in all aspects of bioinorganic chemistry, including bioorganometallic chemistry and applied bioinorganic chemistry, and applications in fields such as medicine and immunology.
Chief Editor, Professor Fanizzi, is based at the Università del Salento. His research interests and current projects are related to the study of transition metals (Platinum in particular), coordination organometallic and bioinorganic chemistry, and the applications of high field NMR Spectroscopy.
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Boswellia dalzielii-Mediated Silver Nanoparticles Inhibited Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Kasumi-1 Cells by Inducing Cell Cycle Arrest
Background. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) persists to be a major health problem especially among children as effective chemotherapy to combat the disease is yet to be available. Boswellia dalzielii is a well-known herb that is traditionally used for treatment and management of many diseases including degenerative diseases. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from the phytochemicals of B. dalzielii stem bark aqueous extract. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by carrying out Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Energy Filtered Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction, and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analyses. Antioxidant capacity of the nanoparticles was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and the antiproliferative effect of the nanoparticles on Kasumi-1 leukemia cells was investigated using PrestoBlue assay. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to observe the effect of the nanoparticles on the leukemia cell cycle progression. Results. Our findings revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were formed from electrons of the plant phytochemicals which include aromatic compounds, ethers, and alkynes. FESEM analysis revealed that the sizes of the nanoparticles range from 12 nm to 101 nm; however, DLS analysis estimated a larger average size of the nanoparticles (108.3 nm) because it measured the hydrodynamic radii of the nanoparticles. The zeta potential of the nanoparticles was −16 nm, and the XRD pattern of the nanoparticles has distinct peaks at 38.02°, 42.94°, 64.45°, 77.20°, and 81.47°, which is typical of face-centered cubic (fcc) structure of silver. The Trolox Equivalence Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) of the nanoparticles was estimated to be 300.91 μM Trolox/mg silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles inhibited Kasumi-1 cell proliferation. The half minimal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) that inhibited Kasumi-1 cell proliferation are 49.5 μg/ml and 13.25 μg/ml at 48 and 72 hours, respectively. The nanoparticles induced cell cycle arrest in the Kasumi-1 cells at S (5% increase) and G2/M (3% increase) phases. Conclusion. The nanoparticles synthesized from the stem bark extract of B. dalzielii inhibit the growth of Kasumi-1 leukemia cells by activating cell cycle arrest; thus, they are potential antileukemic agents.
Sealing Ability of AH Plus and GuttaFlow Bioseal
The objective of root canal obturation is to achieve a fluid-tight seal. Recently, GuttaFlow bioseal (GB), a root canal sealer composed of polydimethylsiloxane, gutta-percha particles, and bioactive glass ceramics, has been developed, to enhance the sealing ability of root canal filling material. The objective of this study was to assess the sealing ability of GB using a subnanoliter-scaled fluid-flow measuring device and to compare with that of AH Plus (AH). The fluid flow in root canal-filled teeth using either gutta-percha cone (GP) with AH (GAR; n = 10) or GP with GB (GBR; n = 10) and in GP inserted in AH blocks (GA; n = 10) or GP inserted in GB blocks (GB; n = 10) was measured. In addition, fluid flow in sealer blocks of AH (A; n = 10) and GB (B; n = 10), which served as negative controls, was measured. Root canal-filled teeth using GP without any sealer (GR) acted as positive controls (n = 10). The leakage was obtained by calculating the volume of moved water by time (s), after stabilization of the fluid flow was achieved. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction. A value less than 0.00238 (0.05/21) was considered significantly different. The mean leakages (nL/s) in the groups are as follows: GAR, 0.0958 ± 0.0543; GBR, 0.0223 ± 0.0246; GA, 0.0644 ± 0.0803; GB, 0.0267 ± 0.0182; A, 0.0055 ± 0.0057; B, 0.0052 ± 0.005; and GR, 0.2892 ± 0.3018. The mean leakage in the GBR group was lower than that in the GAR group ( = 0.001), while the mean leakages in the GA and GB groups were not significantly different. GuttaFlow bioseal can be useful in single-cone obturation technique.
Synthesis, Crystal Structures, and Antimicrobial and Antitumor Studies of Two Zinc(II) Complexes with Pyridine Thiazole Derivatives
Two pyridine thiazole derivatives, namely, 4-(pyridin-2-yl)-2-(2-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)hydrazinyl)thiazole (L1) and 4-(pyridin-3-yl)-2-(2-(pyridin-4-ylmethylene)hydrazinyl)thiazole (L2), were afforded by a cyclization reaction between α-haloketone and thioamide, and their Zn(II) complexes were prepared by the reaction of ligands and corresponding metal salts, respectively, and characterized by X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis. Both crystals were obtained by ether diffusion and crystallized in a monoclinic system. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Zn(II) complexes and ligands was screened using the microplate reader method, and in vitro antitumor activities of the complexes were evaluated by MTT, with a view to developing new improved bioactive materials with novel properties. The biological activity studies of the compounds showed that the metal complexes were more active than the free ligands, and some compounds had absolute specificity for certain bacteria or cancer cell lines.
Glutaraldehyde-Polymerized Hemoglobin: In Search of Improved Performance as Oxygen Carrier in Hemorrhage Models
Hemoglobin- (Hb-) based oxygen carriers (HBOC) have for several decades been explored for treatment of hemorrhage. In our previous top-up tests, HBOC with lower in vitro prooxidant reactivity (incorporating a peroxidase or serum albumin to this end) showed a measurable but small improvement of oxidative stress-related parameters. Here, such HBOCs are tested in a hemorrhage set-up; ovine hemoglobin is also tested for the first time in such a setting, based on in vitro data showing its improved performance versus bovine Hb against oxidative and nitrosative stress agents. Indeed, ovine Hb performs better than bovine Hb in terms of survival rates, arterial tension, immunology, and histology. On the other hand, unlike in the top-up models, where the nonheme peroxidase rubrerythrin as well as bovine serum albumin copolymerized with Hb were shown to improve the performance of HBOC, in the present hemorrhage models rubrerythrin fails dramatically as HBOC ingredient (with a distinct immunological reaction), whereas serum albumin appears not feasible if its source is a different species (i.e., bovine serum albumin fares distinctly worse than rat serum albumin, in HBOC transfusions in rats). An effect of the matrix in which the HBOCs are dissolved (PBS versus gelofusine versus plasma) is noted.
Effect of Ultrafine Powderization and Solid Dispersion Formation via Hot-Melt Extrusion on Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and the Human Kv1.3 Channel Inhibitory Activities of Angelica gigas Nakai
Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) was first processed by ultrafine grinding technology and hot-melt extrusion (HME). The potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of AGN with a different process were compared, and the effect on the human Kv1.3 potassium channel was detected. The process of ultrafine powderization on AGN significantly increased the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity, and DNA damage protective effect. On the contrary, AGN solid dispersion (AGN-SD) based on Soluplus® showed the highest inhibitory effect on NO production and the human Kv1.3 channel. In addition, AGN-SD inhibited the production of prostaglandin E2 and intracellular reactive oxygen species and the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin 1β, and interleukin 6. Taken together, these results suggest that ultrafine powderization and solid dispersion formation via HME can significantly improve the biological activities of AGN. The results also suggested that ultrafine powderization and HME may be developed and applied in the pharmaceutical industry.
Determination of Physicochemical Parameters and Levels of Heavy Metals in Food Waste Water with Environmental Effects
Bioinorganic chemistry is found as a sizzling field in today’s era. It deals with chemistry amongst the heavy metals with natural resources, i.e., air, soil, water, plant byproducts (foods), and environmental essences. The aim of this research is to determine the concentration of heavy metals present in the food waste water sample and to study the environmental effects of metal ion concentration. To conduct the research work, the physicochemical parameters and levels of five heavy metals of food waste water samples were collected from five sampling points of renowned hotels, restaurants, canteens, and confectionaries of a state of India and assessed using the standard analytical procedure. Sampling was carried out from January 2017 up to December 2017. The physicochemical parameters were determined such as pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, total alkalinity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon, sulphate, nitrate, and phosphate. The heavy metal concentration was determined by using the UV-spectrophotometer, and the results were compared with the standards prescribed by the WHO, BIS, ICMR, and municipal authorities. The results obtained in the physicochemical analysis revealed that a few parameters were found beyond limits, and the metal ion concentration (iron and zinc) results were found above the permissible limits set by the CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board), ICMR, BIS, and World Health Organization (WHO), most especially, effluent from point . It was concluded that all the effluents required further treatment before releasing them into the water body or land to prevent pollution. The obtained results reveal that waste water used for irrigation and farming of nearby areas and water drained from restaurant kitchens were considerably polluted and not suitable for aquatic organisms, irrigation, and agricultural purposes.