Modified Activated Carbon: A Supporting Material for Improving Clostridium beijerinckii TISTR1461 Immobilized FermentationRead the full article
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications publishes research in all aspects of bioinorganic chemistry, including bioorganometallic chemistry and applied bioinorganic chemistry, and applications in fields such as medicine and immunology.
Chief Editor, Professor Fanizzi, is based at the Università del Salento. His research interests and current projects are related to the study of transition metals (Platinum in particular), coordination organometallic and bioinorganic chemistry, and the applications of high field NMR Spectroscopy.
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Biomolecule Protective and Photocatalytic Potential of Cellulose Supported MoS2/GO Nanocomposite
In the current study, cellulose/MoS2/GO nanocomposite has been synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Reports published regarding efficiency of Mo and graphene oxide-based nanocomposites for environmental remediation motivated to synthesize cellulose supported MoS2/GO nanocomposite. Formation of nanocomposite was initially confirmed by UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. Particle size and morphology of the nanocomposite were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and it was found having particle size ranging from 50 to 80 nm and heterogeneous structure. The XRD analysis also confirmed the structure of the nanocomposite having cellulose, MoS2, and GO. The synthesized nanocomposite was further tested for biomolecule protective potential employing different radical scavenging assays. Results of radical DPPH● (50%) and ABTS●+ (51%) scavenging studies indicate that nanocomposites can be used as a biomolecule protective agent. In addition, nanocomposite was also evaluated for photocatalytic potential, and the results showed excellent photocatalytic properties for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol up to 75% and methylene blue and methyl orange up to 85% and 70%, respectively. So, this study confirmed that cellulose supported/stabilized MoS2/GO nanocomposite can be synthesized by an ecofriendly, cost-effective, and easy hydrothermal method having promising biomolecule protective and photocatalytic potential.
Enhanced Peroxidase-Like and Antibacterial Activity of Ir-CoatedPd-Pt Nanodendrites as Nanozyme
To inhibit the growth of bacteria, the DA-PPI nanozyme with enhanced peroxidase-like activity was synthesized. The DA-PPI nanozyme was obtained by depositing high-affinity element iridium (Ir) on the surface of Pd-Pt dendritic structures. The morphology and composition of DA-PPI nanozyme were characterized using SEM, TEM, and XPS. The kinetic results showed that the DA-PPI nanozyme possessed a higher peroxidase-like activity than that of Pd-Pt dendritic structures. The PL, ESR, and DFT were employed to explain the high peroxidase activity. As a proof of concept, the DA-PPI nanozyme could effectively inhibit E. coli (G−) and S. aureus (G+) due to its high peroxidase-like activity. The study provides a new idea for the design of high active nanozymes and their application in the field of antibacterial.
Assessment of Structural, Optical, and Antibacterial Properties of Green Sn(Fe : Ni)O2 Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract
Metal oxide nanoparticles have attained notable recognition due to their interesting physicochemical properties. Although these nanoparticles can be synthesized using a variety of approaches, the biological method involving plant extracts is preferred since it provides a simple, uncomplicated, ecologically friendly, efficient, rapid, and economical way for synthesis. In this study, the Azadirachta indica leaf extract was used as a reducing agent, and a green process was used to synthesize tin(ferrous: nickel)dioxide (Sn(Fe : Ni)O2) nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were subjected to characterization by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and photoluminescence (PL) measurement. Furthermore, Sn(Fe : Ni)O2 nanoparticles were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains. XRD patterns revealed that Sn(Fe : Ni)O2 nanoparticles exhibited a tetragonal structure. The hydrodynamic diameter of the nanoparticles was 143 nm, as confirmed by the DLS spectrum. The FESEM image showed the spherical form of the synthesized nanoparticles. Chemical composites and mapping analyses were performed through the EDAX spectrum. The Sn–O–Sn and Sn–O stretching bands were 615 cm−1 and 550 cm−1 in the FTIR spectrum, respectively. Various surface defects of the synthesized Sn(Fe : Ni)O2 nanoparticles were identified by photoluminescence spectra. Compared to traditional antibiotics like amoxicillin, the inhibition zone revealed that Sn(Fe : Ni)O2 nanoparticles displayed remarkable antibacterial activity against all tested organisms, indicating the valuable potential of nanoparticles in the healthcare industry.
Hybrid MWCNT and TiO2 Nanoparticle-Suspended Waste Tyre Oil Biodiesel for CI Engines
Nowadays, scarcity arises in almost all our basic needs, including water, fuel, and food. Recycling used and scrapped things for a valuable commodity is highly appreciable for compensating for the globally fast-growing demand. This paper aims to investigate waste tyre oil for preparing biodiesel for CI engines by enhancing their performance with hybrid nanoparticles for preparing nanofuel and hybrid nanofuel. The nanoparticles (30–40 nm) of MWCNT and TiO2 were utilized to prepare nanofuels with nanoparticle concentrations of MWCNT (300 ppm) and TiO2 (300 ppm), respectively. In the case of hybrid nanofuel, the nanoparticle concentration of MWCNT (150 ppm) and TiO2 (150 ppm) was preferred. The performance of the proposed nanofuel and hybrid nanofuel with pure diesel was evaluated. The proposed fuel performance outperforms the combustion performance, has higher engine efficiency, and has fewer emissions. The best performances were noticed in hybrid nanofuel that has 32% higher brake thermal efficiency than diesel and 24% and 4% lower BSFC and peak pressure than diesel, respectively. The emission performance is also 29%, 50%, and 13% lower in CO, HC, and CO2 emissions than that in pure diesel.
Bioinorganic Preparation of Hydroxyapatite and Rare Earth Substituted Hydroxyapatite for Biomaterials Applications
Rare Earth elements in the lanthanide series are regarded as one of the finest options for the cationic substitution of calcium ions in hydroxyapatite (HA) because of their favorable impact on the biological characteristics of substituted HA. Neodymium and cerium were used to substitute 5% of calcium ions in HA, prepared via the wet precipitation method. Characterization tests for pure and substituted HA were conducted using XRD, FTIR, EDS, and FESEM. The results showed that changing part from calcium ions in hydroxyapatite to Nd and Ce ions altered its structure, composition, and morphology. Regarding the biological tests, the cytotoxicity test revealed a change in IC50 for both normal and cancer cell lines, where substitution part of the Ca ions with rare Earth elements led to increasing antitumor activity in comparison with HA without substitution; in addition, antibacterial and fungicide activity was evident for both HA and Nd-Ce/HA, with a modest increase in antibacterial activity of Nd-Ce/HA against S. epidermidis and E. coli in comparison with HA. These findings may shed light on the process by which Nd and Ce ions improve the biological characteristics of pure HA and the increased potential of these bioceramics.
Plant Extract Based on Deep Eutectic Solvent-Mediated Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Cytotoxicity and Antibacterial Effects
Deep eutectic solvent DES-based grape pomace extracts (GPE) were used to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for the first time. This paper presents a synthesis of AgNPs by a novel method with GPE obtained by an eco-friendly “green” solvent, namely, betaine-lactic acid and proline-lactic acid DESs. Compared with the water-based GPE, the DES-based grape pomace extracts contain lower reducing powers but additionally act as capping agent, which is the more important property for the creation of necessary particle nanosize and dispersion with colloidal stability. DESs were synthesized using a heating method, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to confirm the formation of the DES. The phytochemical profile of GPE exhibits a high amount of hydroxycinnamic acids (23%), followed by anthocyanins (19%). The silver nanoparticles with a round shape were noticed on the scanning electron microscopy micrographs with the particle size in the range of 10–20 nm. The disc diffusion technique (DDT) showed that the AgNPs exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) UKM В-906 and Gram-positivespore-formingBacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) UCМ В-506T. Mitotic index (MI) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) were assessed by A. cepa assay. The synthesized silver nanoparticles do not induce cytogenotoxic and genotoxic changes in Allium cepa L. with nanoparticles at concentrations up to 10%.