Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications

Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications / 2009 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2009 |Article ID 413175 |

Ahlam J. Abdul-Ghani, Asmaa M. N. Khaleel, "Synthesis and Characterization of New Schiff Bases Derived from N (1)-Substituted Isatin with Dithiooxamide and Their Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II), and Pt(IV) Complexes", Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications, vol. 2009, Article ID 413175, 12 pages, 2009.

Synthesis and Characterization of New Schiff Bases Derived from N (1)-Substituted Isatin with Dithiooxamide and Their Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II), and Pt(IV) Complexes

Academic Editor: Nick Katsaros
Received13 Apr 2009
Revised12 Jul 2009
Accepted15 Jul 2009
Published26 Oct 2009


Three new Schiff bases of N-substituted isatin , and = Schiff base of N-acetylisatin, N-benzylisatin, and N-benzoylisatin, respectively, and their metal complexes , , , , , , , , , , , , and , were reported. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, metal and chloride content, spectroscopic methods, magnetic moments, conductivity measurements, and thermal studies. Some of these compounds were tested as antibacterial and antifungal agents against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger.

1. Introduction

Isatin (indole-2,3-dione) and its derivatives have shown a wide scale of biological activities such as antibacterial [13], antifungal [1, 35], anticonvulsant [2, 6], anti-HIV [7], anticancer [1, 2], antiviral [1], and enzyme inhibitors [2]. The Schiff bases (a) and (b) (Scheme 1) derived from isatin and its derivatives with different amines have been studied [1, 2, 6, 813]. The reaction of N-acetyl, N-benzoyl, and N-tosylisatin and their Schiff base derivatives (c) and (d) (Scheme 1) with ethanol, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, allyl alcohol, TsNH2, pyrrolidine, and water yield products resulting from nucleophilic attack at the C-2 carbonyl that leads to heterocyclic ring cleavage [8, 14]. The present work aims to study the synthesis and antibacterial activity of three new ligands derived from condensation of N-acetyl, N-benzyl, and N-benzoylisatin with the chelating agent dithiooxamide (ethanedithioamide or rubeanic acid) dto and their metal complexes. The Schiff bases of dithiooxamide and their complexes have received most of the attention because of the semiconductive, magnetic, spectroscopic, and thermal properties [1517] as well as being used as semiconductors antibacterial and antifungal agents [1820].


2. Experimental/Materials and Methods

All chemicals used were of analytical reagent grade (AR) except dto and ethanol which were purified prior to use [21]. FTIR spectra were recorded on SHIMADZU FTIR-8400S, Fourier Transform, Infrared spectrophotometer. The electronic spectra ( (200–1100) nm) in different solvents were recorded on Shimadzu (UV-Vis)-160 spectrophotometer. Elemental microanalyses were performed on Euro vector EA 3000 A. The metal contents of the complexes were determined by atomic absorption technique using Varian-AA775, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotomer. Mass spectra were recorded on Shimadzu QP 5050A. 1H NMR was performed by using Bruker Ultra Sheild 300 MHz NMR spectrophotometer. Thermal analyses (TG and DTG) were carried out by using Shimadzu Thermal Analyzer Type 50 H. Electrical conductivity measurements for complexes (10-3 M) in DMF and DMSO at room temperature were carried out by using Hunts Capacitors Trade Mark British made. Magnetic moments ( B.M) for the prepared complexes in the solid state at room temperature were measured by using Bruker Magnet B.M-6. The chloride content for complexes was determined by Mohr’s method. N-acetylisatin, N-benzylisatin, N-benzoylisatin, and PdCl2(phCN)2 were prepared by methods reported in literature [6, 2225].

3. Synthesis of Ligands

All attempts to prepare 1-(9a-Hydroxy-2,3-dithiooxo-1,2,3,9a-tetrahydro-1,4,9-triaza-fluoren-9-yl)-ethanone ( ) (Scheme 2) and 9-Benzyl-9a-hydroxy-9,9a-dihydro-1H-1,4,4-triaza-fluorene-2,3-dithione ( ) (Scheme 2) in solutions were unsuccessful; therefore solid reaction was carried out to prepare the two ligands.

3.1. Schiff Base of N-Acetylisatin: 1-(9a-Hydroxy-2,3-dithiooxo-1,2,3,9a-tetrahydro-1,4,9-triaza-fluoren-9-yl)-ethanone ( )

A powdered mixture of N-acetylisatin (0.3092 g, 1.6 mmol) and dto (0.0983 g, 0.8 mmol) in a sealed Carius tube was heated in a stirred oil bath at 160–170°C for 2 hours. The melt colour was changed from orange to dark brown. After cooling to room temperature, the solid product was ground and dissolved in butanol, followed by precipitation with ether. A black precipitate was formed. The product was filtered off and washed several times with ether to remove the unreacted materials giving brown crystals. Yield (0.116 g, 48.76%), m.p (220°C decomp.). 1H NMR data (ppm), (CDCL3): 2.508 (3H,s,CH3); 3.34 (2H,s,OH and NH thioamide); 7.074–7.853 (4H, m, aromatic protons). MS(EI), m/z(%): 207(21), 161(10), 146(23), 133(9), 92(10), 78(59), 63(84), 44(100). Anal. for C12H9N3O2S2 Calcd. C, 49.48; H, 3.09; N, 14.43%; Found: C, 50.54; H, 3.22; N, 13.23%.

3.2. Schiff Base of N-Benzylisatin: 9-Benzyl-9a-hydroxy-9,9a-dihydro-1H-1,4,4-triaza-fluorene-2,3-dithione ( )

A powdered mixture of N-benzylisatin (0.829 g, 3.5 mmol) and dto (0.85 g, 7 mmol) was heated in a sealed Carius tube in an oil bath at 140°C for 10 hours. Colour of melt was changed from orange to dark brown. After cooling to room temperature, a solid mass was formed. The product was ground and purified several times in refluxing ethanol, filtered off, washed with hot ethanol followed by acetone and dried, giving dark brown crystals. Yield (0.2679 g, 22.3%), m.p ( 250°C). 1H NMR data (ppm), (DMSO): 3.45(2H, s, OH and NH thioamide); 5.1(2H, w, CH2 benzyl); 6.9–7.2(9H, m, aromatic protons). MS(EI), m/z(%): 156(11), 149(15), 127(13), 105(11), 78(100), 63(100). Anal. for C17H13N3OS2 Calcd.: C, 60.17; H, 3.83; N, 12.38%; Found: C, 61.10; H, 3.43; N, 12.98%.

3.3. Schiff Base of N-Benzoylisatin: N-[2-(3-oxo-5,6-dithioxo-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-pyrazin-2-yl)-phenyl] benzamide ( )

Equimolar amounts of benzoylisatin (0.2 g, 0.79 mmol) and dto (0.0957 g, 0.79 mmol) in butanol (2 cm3) containing 4 drops of piperidine were heated under reflux with stirring for 5 hours during which the colour of solution was changed from orange to brown. The solution mixture was left to stand overnight and then cooled down to 0°C. Cold ether was added until a dark brown precipitate was formed. The product was filtered off, washed several times with acetone followed by ether. Yield (0.0857 g, 30.51%), m.p. (250°C decomp.), 1H NMR data (ppm), (DMSO): 4.902–5.101(1H, b, NH thioamide); 7.144–7.860(9H, m, aromatic protons); 10.124(1H, b, NH benzoyl moiety). MS(EI), m/z(%): 296.6(13), 267.5(7), 232.6(20), 195.6(15), 149.5(6), 104.4(27), 83.4(6). Anal. for C17H11N3O2S2 Calcd.: C, 57.79; H, 3.11; N, 11.89%; Found: C, 57.39; H, 3.54; N, 11.30%.

4. Preparation of Metal Complexes

(A)A solution mixture of the ligands and (0.01 mmol) (0.0029, 0.0033 g), respectively, with the metal salts CoCl2 6 , NiCl2 6 , and CuCl2 2 (0.01 mmol) and (0.02 mmol) (0.0058, 0.0067 g) of and , respectively, with the metal salts PdCl2(phCN)2 and K2PtCl6 (0.01 mmol), in DMF (C1), butanol (C2 and C3), or DMSO (C4–C10) was heated under reflux for four hours. Precipitation of complexes took place within 30 minutes, while those of was precipitated at the end of reflux time. The products were filtered, washed with hot ethanol and acetone, followed by ether and vacuum dried. Complexes of were prepared in the same manner using a mixture of (0.01 mmol, 0.0035 g) with the metal salts CoCl2 6 , NiCl2 6 (0.01 mmol), and (0.02 mmol, 0.007 g) of with PdCl2(phCN)2 (0.01 mmol). “ ”: colour(dark brown) Yield (26.24%). Anal. for (C24H18N6O4S4 Co2Cl3)Cl Calcd.: C, 34.21; H, 2.13; N, 9.97; S, 15.20%; Found: C, 34.32; H, 2.50; N, 9.42; S, 15.13%. M, 13.99(Calcd), 14.0(Found)%; Cl, 16.86(Calcd), 16.20(Found)%. “C2”: colour(dark brown). Yield (23.51% ). Anal. for [(C24H18N6O4S4 NiCl2)0.4(C4H10O)] Calcd.: C, 47.63; H, 5.75; N, 8.33%; Found: C, 48.32; H, 5.45; N, 8.83%. M, 5.82(Calcd), 5.72(Found)%. “C3”: colour(dark brown). Yield (23.35%). Anal. for [(C12H9N3O2S2CuCl ( ))Cl.0.5(C4H10O)] Calcd.: C, 34.96; H, 3.32; N, 8.74%; Found: C, 34.01; H, 3.72; N, 9.73%. M, 13.21(Calcd), 13.85(Found)%. Cl, 14.77(Calcd), 14.70(Found%). “C4”: colour(dark brown). Yield (35.18%). Anal. for [(C24H18N6O4S4PdCl)Cl] Calcd.: C, 37.94; H, 2.37; N, 11.06; S, 16.86%; Found: C, 38.40; H, 2.38; N, 11.15; S, 16.78%. M, 13.96(Calcd), 13.71(Found)%. Cl, 9.35(Calcd), 10.5(Found)%. “C5”: colour(brown). yield (19.08%). Anal. for [(C24H18N6O4S4PtCl2)Cl2 1.8(C2H6O) ] Calcd.: C, 32.47; H, 3.02; N, 8.23%; Found: C, 32.85; H, 3.27; N, 9.16%. M, 19.12(Calcd), 19.10(Found)%. “ ”: colour(dark brown). Yield (36.06%). Anal. for [(C17H13N3OS2CoCl)Cl 0.4(H2O) 0.3(C2H6SO)] Calcd.: C, 42.28; H, 3.12; N, 8.40; S, 12.81%; Found: C, 41.85; H, 2.72; N, 8.15; S, 12.00%. M, 11.79(Calcd), 12.11(Found)%; Cl, 14.21(Calcd), 14.58(Found)%. “C7”: colour(dark brown). Yield (45.30%). Anal. for [C17H13N3OS2NiCl2] Calcd.: C, 43.52; H, 2.77; N, 8.96%; Found: C, 44.20; H, 3.05; N, 9.24%. M, 12.52(Calcd), 12.23(Found)%; Cl, 15.14(Calcd), 15.47(Found)%. “C8”: colour(dark brown). Yield (45.39%). Anal. for [(C17H13N3OS2Cu)Cl2 )] Calcd.: C, 41.50; H, 3.05; N, 8.54%; S, 13.02%; Found: C, 42.15; H, 2.74; N, 8.16; S, 12.94%. M, 12.91(Calcd), 13.12(Found)%; Cl, 14.44(Calcd), 14.55(Found)%. “C9”: colour(dark brown). Yield (43.38%). Anal. for [(C34H26N6O2S4Pd)Cl2)] Calcd.: C, 47.71; H, 3.04; N, 9.82%; S, 14.97%; Found: C, 47.75; H, 3.11; N, 9.69; S, 15.52%. M, 12.39(Calcd), 13.00(Found)%; Cl, 8.30(Calcd), 8.47(Found)%. “C10”: colour(dark brown). Yield (32.42%). Anal. for [((C17H13N3OS2)2.5PtCl)Cl3] Calcd.: C, 43.05; H, 2.74; N, 8.86%; S, 13.50%; Found: C, 43.84; H, 2.55; N, 9.17; S, 14.09%. M, 16.46(Calcd), 15.87(Found)%. “ ”: colour(brown). Yield (33.43%). Anal. for [(C17H11N3O2S2Co)Cl2 H2O] Calcd.: C, 40.72; H, 2.59; N, 8.38 %; Found: C, 40.05; H, 2.34; N, 7.82;%. M, 11.75(Calcd), 12.25(Found)%. Cl, 14.17(Calcd), 14.85(Found)%. “C12”: colour(brown). Yield (34.37%). Anal. for [(C34H22N6O4S4Ni)Cl2] Calcd.: C, 48.82; H, 2.63; N, 10.05%; Found: C, 49.62; H, 2.46; N, 9.41; %. M, 7.02(Calcd), 7.50(Found)%. Cl, 8.49(Calcd), 8.56(Found)%. “C13”: colour(brown). Yield (34.03%). Anal. for [(C34H22N6O4S4Pd)Cl2] Calcd.: C, 46.20; H, 2.46; N, 9.51; S, 14.49%; Found: C, 46.47; H, 2.66; N, 9.79; S, 14.78%. M, 12.00(Calcd), 11.50(Found)%. Cl, 8.04(Calcd), 8.63(Found)%.(B)To a solution mixture of N-acetyl, N-benzyl, or N-benzoylisatin (0.02 mmol) 0.0037, 0.0047, and 0.005 g, respectively, with dto (0.01 mmol) (0.0012 g), (0.04 mmol) (0.0048 g), and (0.02  mmol) (0.0024 g), respectively, in butanol was added a solution of CoCl2 6H2O (0.02 mmol) in butanol. The mixture was heated under reflux. Precipitation took place immediately. Heating was continued for 4 hours to achieve complet precipitation. The product was filtered, washed with hot butanol, followed by ethanol, acetone, ether, and vacuum dried. “ ”: colour(dark brown). Yield (25.15%). Anal. for (C24H18N6O4S4 Co2Cl3)Cl Calcd.: C, 34.21; H, 2.13; N, 9.97; S, 15.20%; Found: C, 34.15; H, 1.95; N, 10.31; S, 15.07%. M, 13.99(Calcd), 13.30(Found)%; Cl, 16.86(Calcd), 16.19(Found)%. “ ”: colour(dark brown). Yield (71.42%). Anal. for [(C17H13N3OS2CoCl) Cl 0.3(H2O) 0.1(C4H10O)] Calcd.: C, 43.34; H, 3.03; N, 8.71; S, 13.28%; Found: C, 43.89; H, 3.35; N, 8.54; S, 13.48%. M, 12.22(Calcd), 12.25(Found)%; Cl, 14.73(Calcd), 14.44(Found)%. “ ”: colour(brown). Yield (41.72%). Anal. for [(C17H11N3O2S2Co)Cl2 0.2H2O] Calcd.: C, 41.93; H, 2.34; N, 8.63%; Found: C, 42.56; H, 2.53; N, 8.73; %. M, 12.10(Calcd), 12.11(Found)%. Cl, 14.59(Calcd), 14.71(Found)%.

5. Microbiological Test Methods

The two following methods were used to perform the antimicrobial tests.

5.1. Agar Diffusion Method

In this method the colonies of the selected bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus (G+), Proteus vulgaris (G-), and the fungus Candida albicans were spread on the surface of solidified nutrient agar. Suitably separated 7 mm diameter holes were made in each agar plate. Each hole was injected with 0.1 mL of 150, 350, 650, and 1000 ppm of the studied compound in DMSO. The agar plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Diameters of growth inhibition zones were measured in mm depending on diameter and clarity.

5.2. Agar Dilution Method

In this method the antifungal activity of 250 ppm of some selected compounds in DMSO was screened against Aspergillus niger. 2.5 cm3 of 2000 ppm of tested solution was added to 20 cm3 of hot agar solution. The homogenized mixture was then poured into petridish and left to solidify. The Aspergillus colony (9 mm diameter) was fixed on the solidified agar, and the medium was incubated at 37°C for 8 days.

6. Results and Discussion

The IR spectra showed that the three ligands exhibited vibrational modes of of azomethine group [4, 6, 2628], ( , ), ( , ), , and of dto moiety [29, 30] (Table 1). Spectra of and showed vibrational bands related to stretching modes of OH groups [31, 32]. The position of the bands assigned to vibrations of the cyclic rings was dependent on their environment. of and were observed at lower frequencies compared with that of (Table 1) [27, 32]. The latter exhibited bands assigned to and of amide and lactam rings [6, 27, 31, 32]. The spectra of complexes with Co(II), Cu(II), and Pd(II) ions exhibited shift in and (azomethine) vibrations. The latter two complexes together with Ni(II) complex showed additional shifts in to lower frequencies while no significant changes were observed on vibrational modes of C=O group which rules out coordination with carbonyl oxygen. Shifts of thioamide bands (III and IV) were observed in the spectra of Cu(II) and Pt(IV) complexes and were attributed to coordination of metal ion with sulfur atom [33]. Metal complexes of showed bands assigned to and vibrations (Table 1). This may be attributed to cleavage of thioamide ring on complexation leading reappearance of and of both C-2 and NH2 of isatin and dto moieties, respectively. Shifts in (compared with of the free dto (3296, 3203 cm-1)) [34] to lower frequencies were observed in all spectra of complexes except that of Ni(II) which was shifted to higher frequency. Bands related to vibrations in spectra of both Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes were shifted to higher frequencies while spectra of the other complexes showed shifts to lower frequencies. Additional shifts were observed in the bands assigned to (azomethine) in all complexes except that of Cu(II). The latter complex exhibited shift of band to lower frequency which refers to coordination of sulfur to Cu(II) ion [33]. The spectra of metal complexes exhibited shifts in vibrational modes of and band IV of thioamide group as a result of coordination with metal ions [33, 35]. Additional shift in position of bands assigned to was observed in the spectra of Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes. Shifts in the position of amide and of lactam ring were observed in the spectra of the Pd(II) complex as a result of coordination. Bands related to vibrational modes of lattice solvent, coordinated water were observed at 3500-3400 cm-1 [3638]. Bands appeared at lower frequencies were refered to M–O, M–N, M–S, and M–Cl stretching modes [3638]. Further data are collected in (Table 1).


Symbol Thioamide
Band IBand IIBand IIIBand IV


Lattice butanol, C2, C3 = 3500, 3750 cm-1, Lattice ethanol, C5 = 3495 cm-1 Coord H2O, C3 = 3456, 750, 675; Lattice H2O, C5 = 3425 cm-1 M-S, C3 and C5 = 345 and 370  cm-1 respectively, *bridging.

Symbol Thioamide Lattice
Band IBand IIBand IIIBand IV


OH, LII = 3400 cm-1; NH, LII = 3145 cm-1; Lattice butanol, C6b = 3550 cm-1 M-S, C8 = 320  cm-1.

Symbol amide amide lactam lactam Thioamide group
Band IBand IIBand IIIBand IV


Lattic , , 3500

Theelectronic spectra of , , and exhibited high-intensity multiple bands in DMF and DMSO at 36231–20000 cm-1. These bands were assigned to transition of conjugated system. exhibited additional low-intensity band which was assigned to transition. Changes in positions and profile (C8–C10) of bands were observed in the spectra of metal complexes. Bands related to the (CT) transition were observed as a shoulder on the ligand band in the spectra of C1, C3, C6, C7, C9, and C10 complexes (Table 2). The bands observed in the spectra of Co(II) complexes in the visible region were assigned to ( ), ( ), and ( ). The magnetic moment values of Co(II) complexes were in the range of (3.959–4.6 BM) (Table 2). This indicates tetrahedral geometry around Co(II) ions [3639] (Scheme 3). The Ni(II) complex C2 gave a greenish yellow colour in DMF indicating the exchange of weak ligand atoms with solvent molecules [4043]. The spectrum of this complex showed bands characteristic of octahedral Ni(II) complex [3638, 4043] (Table 2), while the other Ni(II) complexes (C7 and C12) showed tetrahedral geometries (Scheme 3).

SymbolBand positions (cm-1)AssignmentDq/ ( ) (cm-1)10Dq (cm-1) (B.M)Suggested structureMolar conductivity S mol-1 cm2 in DMF and DMSO*

6388 (cal.) 470.261124.5Tetrahedral32.12*
10752 1.3
Co(II) 16930 (avr.) (0.484)
6388 (cal.) 470.261124.61Tetrahedral29.7*
10752 1.3
Co(II) 16930 (avr.) (0.484)
C2 12345 2.8454.2127173.31Octahedral46.45
Ni(II) 16806 (0.440)
27035 (cal.)
12150 2.36Octahedral68.19
C3 16666
Cu(II) 18761
C4 12048 DiamagneticSquare planar60.37
Pd(II) 16949
C5 17825 DiamagneticOctahedral154.13
Pt(IV) 22371
6535 (cal.) 487.360914.21Tetrahedral34.3*
10526 1.25
Co(II) 16666 (0.501)
6389 (cal.) 488.561074.30Tetrahedral30.52*
10504 1.25
Co(II) 16612 (0.503)
5473 (cal.) 721.557682.73Tetrahedral7.9*
C7 11074 0.82
Ni(II) 15873 (0.70)
C8 13440 1.84Square planar155.8
Cu(II) 19230
C9 16949 DiamagneticSquare planar125.4
Pd(II) 21367
C10 14388 DiamagneticOctahedral196.6
Pt(IV) 20576
6410 (cal.) 1.5436.865523.959Tetrahedral143.5
Co(II) 10000 (0.449)
15641 (avr.)
6410 (cal.) 1.5436.865523.997Tetrahedral150.6
Co(II) 10000 (0.449)
15641 (avr.)
C12 4994 (cal.) 0.74673.149802.746Tetrahedral159.4
Ni(II) 10482 (0.653)
15483 (avr.)
C13 12820 DiamagneticSquare planar148.2
Pd(II) 16666


The electronic spectra and magnetic moments ( B.M) (Table 2) of these complexes were consistent with these assignment [3638, 4043]. Spectral data (B′, Dq/B′, 10Dq and β) (Table 2), for the Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes were calculated by applying band energies on Tanaba Saugano diagrams. The energy of for Co(II) complexes (C1, C6, C11) and Ni(II) complexes (C7, C12) and for Ni(II) complex C2 were also calculated from the diagrams. The spectrum of the Cu(II) complex C3 exhibited three bands (Table 2) attributed to the spin allowed transitions , and of Jahn Teller tetragonally distorted octahedral Cu(II) complexes [34]. The magnetic moment of the complex (2.36 B.M) indicated paramagnetic character with a high spin orbital coupling [4043]. The spectrum of Cu(II) complex C8 exhibited two bands (Table 2) which were assigned to , and . These bands were attributed to square planar Cu(II) complexes [44] (Scheme 3). Magnetic moment (   =  1.84 B.M) of the complex supported such conclusion [3638, 44]. The spectra of the diamagnetic Pd(II) complexes (C4, C9, and C13) showed two bands assigned to and and the additional band for C4. These bands are attributed to square planar Pd(II) complexes [3438, 4043]. The spectra of the diamagnetic Pt(IV) complexes exhibited two bands which were assigned to forbidden transitions and showing octahedral geometry around Pt(IV) ion [4043] (Scheme 3). The molar conductivities (Table 2) showed that electrolytic nature of the Pt(IV) complex (C10) was 1 : 3, Pt(IV), Cu(II), Pd(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes (C5, C8, C9, C11, C12, and C13) 1 : 2, and Co(II), Cu(II), and Pd(II) complexes (C1, C3, C4, and C6) 1 : 1, while the Ni(II) complexes (C2 and C7) were nonelectrolyte [45]. From these observations, together with the results obtained from other analytical data, the sterochemical structures of the complexes were suggested (Scheme 3).

Thermogravimetric analyses (TG and DTG) have been studied at heating range of 50–800°C for the complexes (C1, C3, C4, and C7) under nitrogen atmosphere. The following results (Table 3) were explained according to analytical suggestions mentioned in literature [4648]. (i) Lattice water, free ions, and organic fragments that are not directly coordinated to the metal ions were found to leave the complex at earlier stages compared with coordinated fragments, (ii) The heating range (50–800°C) produced incomplete decomposition of metal complexes, and the final products were dependent on the type of metal ion and on (M-L) affinity [3638, 46, 49] which reflects the stability of complexes.


Temperature range of decomposition °C%Weight loss found (calc.)


Temperture range of decomposition °C%Weight loss found (calc.)


Temperture range of decomposition °C%Weight loss found (calc.)


Temperture range of decomposition °C%Weight loss found (calc.)

7. Biological Screening

The antibacterial activity for precursors, and , and some of their complexes was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (G+) and Proteus vulgaris (G-) using the agar diffusion method. Diameter (mm) of growth inhibition zones was measured after incubation for 24 hours at 37°C. The results showed that no antibacterial action was recorded by the studied compounds using concentration of 150, 350, and 650 ppm. Using 1000 ppm (Table 4), and its complexes were more active against Staphylococcus aureus, while and its complexes (except C13) were more active against Proteus vulgaris than the other studied compounds. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Candida albicans by the agar diffusion method and Aspergillus niger colony (9 mm diameter) by the agar dilution method using concentration of 250 ppm in DMSO. The results showed that and were inactive against Candida albicans; Co(II) (C11), Ni(II) (C12), and Pd(II) (C13) complexes were more active than the parent ligand ( ) while those of were inactive except Cu(II) complex (C3). , , and C4 which were inactive against Candida albicans showed moderate activity against Aspergillus niger which refer to the effective selectivity of specific inhibitor on the microorganisms.

CompoundsStaphylococcus aureus inhibitionProteus vulgris inhibitionCandida albecans inhibitionAspergillus niger growth
diameter (mm) 1000 ppmdiameter (mm) 1000 ppmdiameter (mm) 1000 ppmdiameter (mm) 1000 ppm

C2 (Ni(II))48Zero
C3 (Cu(II))955
C4 (Pd(II))185Zero9
C11 (Co(II))310149
C12 (Ni(II))Zero1211

8. Conclusions

(1)Condensation reaction of N-acetyl, N-benzyl, and N-benzoyl isatins with dto gave Schiff base ligands , as was confirmed by 1H, 13C NMR, and IR spectra.(2)The formation of the Schiff base ligand took place with ring cleavage at C-2 of the heterocyclic ring of the benzoylisatin. Whereas the formation of and took place without ring cleavage.(3)The presence of various donor atoms and the stereochemistry of the studied ligands enhanced different complexing behaviours and geometries using the studied metal ions.(4)The results of the physical properties and spectral analyses of cobalt complexes prepared by template reaction demonstrated the recommendation of for synthesis of metal complexes of the studied ligands, due to less time consuming and in general more yield of products.(5)The study of biological activity of the studied ligands and some of their metal complexes against bacteria and fungi showed selectivity nature of microorganism towards these compounds and indicated the possibility of using some of them as antibacterial and antifungal agents.


  1. G. Cerhiaro and A. M. D. Ferreira, “Oxindoles and copper complexes with oxindole-derivativesas potential pharmacological agents,” Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1473–1485, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  2. S. N. Pandeya, S. Smitha, M. Jyoti, and S. K. Sridhar, “Biological activities of isatin and its derivatives,” Acta Pharmaceutica, vol. 55, pp. 27–46, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  3. V. K. Sharma, S. Srivastava, and A. Srivastava, “Novel coordination complexes of the trivalent ruthenium, rhodium and iridium with hydrazones derived from isatin hydrazide and various aldehydes with spectral and biological characterization,” Polish Journal of Chemistry, vol. 80, pp. 387–396, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  4. V. K. Sharma, A. Srivastava, and S. Srivastava, “Synthetic,structural and antifungal studies of coordination compounds of Ru(III), Rh(III) and Ir(III) with tetradentat Schiff bases,” Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, vol. 71, no. 8-9, pp. 917–928, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  5. R. M. Abdel Rahman, Z. El Gendy, and M. B. Mahmoud, “Synthesis of some new 3-substituted 1,2,4-triazino-indole derivatives and related compounds of potential antifungal activity,” Indian Journal of Chemistry B, vol. 29, pp. 352–358, 1990. View at: Google Scholar
  6. S. N. Pandeya, A. S. Raja, and J. P. Stables, “Synthesis of isatin semicarbazones as novel anticonvulsants-role of hydrogen bonding,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 266–271, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  7. T. R. Bal, B. Anand, P. Yogeeswari, and D. Sriram, “Synthesis and evaluation of anti-HIV activity of isatin β-thiosemicarbazone derivatives,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 15, no. 20, pp. 4451–4455, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. J. F. M. da Silva, S. J. Garden, and A. C. Pinto, “The chemistry of isatins: a review from 1975 to 1999,” Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 273–324, 2001. View at: Google Scholar
  9. E. H. El Ashry, E. Ramadan, H. M. Abdel Hamid, and M. Hagar, “Microwave irradiation for accelerating each step for the synthesis of 1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indole-3-thiolsand their derivatives from isatin and 5-chloroisatin,” Synlett, no. 4, pp. 723–725, 2004. View at: Google Scholar
  10. G. Pelosi, C. Pelizzi, M. B. Ferrari, M.C. Rodríguez-Argüelles, C. Vieito, and J. Sanmartín, “Isatin 3-semicarbazone and 1-methylisatin 3-semicarbazone,” Acta Crystallographica Section C, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 589–592, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  11. D. Sriram, T. R. Bal, and P. Yogeeswari, “Aminopyimidinimo isatin analogues: design of novel non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors with broadspectrum chemotherapeutic properties,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 565–577, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  12. K. C. Joshi, P. Chand, and A. Dandia, “Studies in spiroheterocycles—part II-reactions of fluorine containing indole-2,3-diones with 1,2-phenylendiamines & 2,3-diaminopyridine in different media,” Indian Journal of Chemistry B, vol. 23, pp. 743–745, 1984. View at: Google Scholar
  13. B. S. Joshi, M. A. Likhate, and N. Viswanathan, “Reaction of N-acylisatins with diamines,” Indian Journal of Chemistry B, vol. 23, pp. 114–116, 1984. View at: Google Scholar
  14. P. De Mayo and J. J. Ryan, “The constitutution of isamic acid,” Canadian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 45, no. 15, pp. 2177–2190, 1967. View at: Google Scholar
  15. P. J. Werkman, A. Schasfoort, R. H. Wieringa, and A. J. Schouten, “Langmuir-blodgett films of a polymerisable N,N-disubstituted dithiooxamide coordination compound,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 325, pp. 243–250, 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  16. J. Muñoz, M. Gallego, and M. Valcárcel, “Speciation of copper by using a new fullerene derivative as a mixed-mode sorbent,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 21, pp. 1396–1402, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  17. H. Al-Maydama, A. El-Shekeil, M. A. Khalid, and A. Al-Karbouly, “Thermal degradation behaviour of some polydithiooxamide metal complexes,” Ecletica Quimica, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  18. S. Ando, D. Kumaki, J. Nishida et al., “Synthesis, physicalproperties and field-effect transistors of novel thiazolothiazole-phenylene co-oligomers,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 17, pp. 553–558, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
  19. S. K. Agarwal, “Synthesis & characterization of some mixed ligand complexes of Pd(II), Rh(III) and Pt(IV) with carboxylic hydrazones as primary and dithiooxamide as co-ligand,” Asian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 2581–2585, 2007. View at: Google Scholar
  20. O. V. Mikhailov, “Complexing processes in M(II)-dithiomalonamide-diacetyl triple systems (M= Ni, Cu) in ethanol solution and in a metal(II)hexacyanoferrate(II) gelatin-immobilized matrix materials,” Transition Metal Chemistry, vol. 30, pp. 18–21, 2005. View at: