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Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 925297, 7 pages
Research Article

Composition and Morphology of Nanocrystals in Urines of Lithogenic Patients and Healthy Persons

1Department of Nephrology, The Second Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710004, China
2Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China

Received 13 June 2009; Accepted 1 September 2009

Academic Editor: Virtudes Moreno

Copyright © 2009 Bao-Song Gui et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The composition and morphology of nanocrystals in urines of healthy persons and lithogenic patients were comparatively investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was shown that the main composition of urinary nanocrystals in healthy persons were calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD), uric acid, and ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite). However, the main compositions of urinary nanocrystals in lithogenic patients were struvite, -tricalcium phosphate, uric acid, COD, and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). According to the XRD data, the size of nanocrystals was calculated to be  nm in healthy urine and  nm in lithogenic urine by Scherer formula. TEM results showed that the nanocrystals in healthy urine were dispersive and uniform with a mean size of about 38 nm. In contrast, the nanocrystals in lithogenic urine were much aggregated with a mean size of about 55 nm. The results in this work indicated that the urinary stone formation may be prevented by diminishing the aggregation and the size differentiation of urinary nanocrystals by physical or chemical methods.