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Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 495218, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/495218
Research Article

Osteoconductivity and Hydrophilicity of TiO2 Coatings on Ti Substrates Prepared by Different Oxidizing Processes

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
2EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
3Hamri Co., Ltd., Tokyo 110-0005, Japan

Received 8 August 2012; Revised 29 November 2012; Accepted 29 November 2012

Academic Editor: Ian Butler

Copyright © 2012 Dai Yamamoto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Various techniques for forming TiO2 coatings on Ti have been investigated for the improvement of the osteoconductivity of Ti implants. However, it is not clear how the oxidizing process affects this osteoconductivity. In this study, TiO2 coatings were prepared using the following three processes: anodizing in 0.1 M H3PO4 or 0.1 M NaOH aqueous solution; thermal oxidation at 673 K for 2 h in air; and a two-step process of anodizing followed by thermal oxidation. The oxide coatings were evaluated using SEM, XRD, and XPS. The water contact angle on the TiO2 coatings was measured as a surface property. The osteoconductivity of these samples was evaluated by measuring the contact ratio of formed hard tissue on the implanted samples (defined as the value) after 14 d implantation in rats' tibias. Anatase was formed by anodizing and rutile by thermal oxidation, but the difference in the TiO2 crystal structure did not influence the osteoconductivity. Anodized TiO2 coatings were hydrophilic, but thermally oxidized TiO2 coatings were less hydrophilic than anodized TiO2 coatings because they lacked in surface OH groups. The TiO2 coating process using anodizing without thermal oxidation gave effective improvement of the osteoconductivity of Ti samples.