Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Volume 2017, Article ID 4101735, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4101735
Review Article

Hazardous Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Ecosystem

1Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
2Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
3Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 190 Kaiyuan Avenue, Science Park, Guangzhou 510530, China
4Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Correspondence should be addressed to Syed Niaz Ali Shah; moc.liamg@tsylanailazain and Zahir Shah; nc.ca.hbig@rihaz

Received 23 December 2016; Accepted 8 February 2017; Published 8 March 2017

Academic Editor: Muataz A. Atieh

Copyright © 2017 Syed Niaz Ali Shah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. M. Gonçalves and D. Girard, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles induce neutrophil influx and local production of several pro-inflammatory mediators in vivo,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1109–1115, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Sanders, L. L. Degn, W. R. Mundy et al., “In vitro phototoxicity and hazard identification of nano-scale titanium dioxide,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 258, no. 2, pp. 226–236, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Khosravi, M. E. Hoque, B. Dimock, H. Hintelmann, and C. D. Metcalfe, “A novel approach for determining total titanium from titanium dioxide nanoparticles suspended in water and biosolids by digestion with ammonium persulfate,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 713, pp. 86–91, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. P. Sycheva, V. S. Zhurkov, V. V. Iurchenko et al., “Investigation of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of micro- and nanosized titanium dioxide in six organs of mice in vivo,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, vol. 726, no. 1, pp. 8–14, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. M. Gonçalves, S. Chiasson, and D. Girard, “Activation of human neutrophils by titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1002–1008, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. B. Li, R. Hu, Z. Cheng et al., “Titanium dioxide nanoparticles relieve biochemical dysfunctions of fifth-instar larvae of silkworms following exposure to phoxim insecticide,” Chemosphere, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 609–614, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. J. Kang, B. M. Kim, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, and H. W. Chung, “Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce apoptosis through the JNK/p38-caspase-8-Bid pathway in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 386, no. 4, pp. 682–687, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J.-J. Yin, J. Liu, M. Ehrenshaft et al., “Phototoxicity of nano titanium dioxides in HaCaT keratinocytes—generation of reactive oxygen species and cell damage,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 263, no. 1, pp. 81–88, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Zhang, Y. Niu, Y. Li et al., “Acute toxicity study of the interaction between titanium dioxide nanoparticles and lead acetate in mice,” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 52–60, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. Jovanović and D. Palić, “Immunotoxicology of non-functionalized engineered nanoparticles in aquatic organisms with special emphasis on fish—review of current knowledge, gap identification, and call for further research,” Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 118-119, pp. 141–151, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. N. A. Philbrook, L. M. Winn, A. R. M. N. Afrooz, N. B. Saleh, and V. K. Walker, “The effect of TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles on reproduction and development of Drosophila melanogaster and CD-1 mice,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 257, no. 3, pp. 429–436, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. Martínez-Gutierrez, E. P. Thi, J. M. Silverman et al., “Antibacterial activity, inflammatory response, coagulation and cytotoxicity effects of silver nanoparticles,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 328–336, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. Sha, W. Gao, S. Wang, F. Xu, and T. Lu, “Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles differs in four liver cells from human and rat,” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 2136–2144, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Markowska-Szczupak, K. Ulfig, and A. W. Morawski, “The application of titanium dioxide for deactivation of bioparticulates: an overview,” Catalysis Today, vol. 169, no. 1, pp. 249–257, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Mohanty, S. Mishra, P. Jena, B. Jacob, B. Sarkar, and A. Sonawane, “An investigation on the antibacterial, cytotoxic, and antibiofilm efficacy of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 916–924, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. I.-L. Hsiao and Y.-J. Huang, “Effects of various physicochemical characteristics on the toxicities of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles toward human lung epithelial cells,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 409, no. 7, pp. 1219–1228, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. A. Oosthuizen, H. M. Oberholzer, M. R. Scriba, W. J. van der Spuy, and E. Pretorius, “Evaluation of the morphological changes in the lungs of BALB/c mice after inhalation of spherical and rod-shaped titanium nanoparticles,” Micron, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 863–869, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. I. Bhatt and B. N. Tripathi, “Interaction of engineered nanoparticles with various components of the environment and possible strategies for their risk assessment,” Chemosphere, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 308–317, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. Gao, N. V. Gopee, P. C. Howard, and L.-R. Yu, “Proteomic analysis of early response lymph node proteins in mice treated with titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” Journal of Proteomics, vol. 74, no. 12, pp. 2745–2759, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Jomini, H. Clivot, P. Bauda, and C. Pagnout, “Impact of manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles on planktonic and sessile bacterial communities,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 202, pp. 196–204, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Wu, J. Sun, and Y. Xue, “Involvement of JNK and P53 activation in G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in neuron cells,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 199, no. 3, pp. 269–276, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. V. Iswarya, M. Bhuvaneshwari, S. A. Alex et al., “Combined toxicity of two crystalline phases (anatase and rutile) of Titania nanoparticles towards freshwater microalgae: Chlorella sp,” Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 161, pp. 154–169, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Chen, X. Dong, Y. Xin, and M. Zhao, “Effects of titanium dioxide nano-particles on growth and some histological parameters of zebrafish (Danio rerio) after a long-term exposure,” Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 101, no. 3-4, pp. 493–499, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Gui, Z. Zhang, L. Zheng et al., “Molecular mechanism of kidney injury of mice caused by exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 195, pp. 365–370, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Wang, G. Zhou, C. Chen et al., “Acute toxicity and biodistribution of different sized titanium dioxide particles in mice after oral administration,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 176–185, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. C. Hong, C. U. Bang, D. H. Shin, and H. S. Uhm, “Band gap narrowing of TiO2 by nitrogen doping in atmospheric microwave plasma,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 413, no. 4–6, pp. 454–457, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. K. Bernard, M. R. Osheroff, A. Hofmann, and J. H. Mennear, “Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of dietary titanium dioxide-coated mica in male and female fischer 344 rats,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 417–429, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Hussain, S. Boland, A. Baeza-Squiban et al., “Oxidative stress and proinflammatory effects of carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles: role of particle surface area and internalized amount,” Toxicology, vol. 260, no. 1–3, pp. 142–149, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. B. Warheit, R. A. Hoke, C. Finlay, E. M. Donner, K. L. Reed, and C. M. Sayes, “Development of a base set of toxicity tests using ultrafine TiO2 particles as a component of nanoparticle risk management,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 171, no. 3, pp. 99–110, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. I. Iavicoli, V. Leso, L. Fontana, and A. Bergamaschi, “Toxicological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: a review of in vitro mammalian studies,” European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 481–508, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. I. Iavicoli, V. Leso, and A. Bergamaschi, “Toxicological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: a review of in vivo studies,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2012, Article ID 964381, 36 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Chen, X. Dong, J. Zhao, and G. Tang, “In vivo acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to mice after intraperitioneal injection,” Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 330–337, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. K. Shukla, V. Sharma, A. K. Pandey, S. Singh, S. Sultana, and A. Dhawan, “ROS-mediated genotoxicity induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human epidermal cells,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 231–241, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Q. Sun, D. Tan, Y. Ze et al., “Pulmotoxicological effects caused by long-term titanium dioxide nanoparticles exposure in mice,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 235-236, pp. 47–53, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E.-J. Park, J. Yi, K.-H. Chung, D.-Y. Ryu, J. Choi, and K. Park, “Oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in cultured BEAS-2B cells,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 180, no. 3, pp. 222–229, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Y. Ze, L. Sheng, X. Zhao et al., “TiO2 nanoparticles induced hippocampal neuroinflammation in mice,” PloS One, vol. 9, no. 3, Article ID e92230, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Y. Shi, F. Wang, J. He, S. Yadav, and H. Wang, “Titanium dioxide nanoparticles cause apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells through the caspase 8/t-Bid-independent mitochondrial pathway,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 196, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. W. Ng, S. P. K. Khoo, B. C. Heng et al., “The role of the tumor suppressor p53 pathway in the cellular DNA damage response to zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Biomaterials, vol. 32, no. 32, pp. 8218–8225, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C. Migdal, R. Rahal, A. Rubod et al., “Internalisation of hybrid titanium dioxide/para-amino benzoic acid nanoparticles in human dendritic cells did not induce toxicity and changes in their functions,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 199, no. 1, pp. 34–42, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Sund, J. Palomäki, N. Ahonen, K. Savolainen, H. Alenius, and A. Puustinen, “Phagocytosis of nano-sized titanium dioxide triggers changes in protein acetylation,” Journal of Proteomics, vol. 108, pp. 469–483, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Zhu, K. Sun, and H. R. Petty, “Titanium doping reduces superoxide dismutase activity, but not oxidase activity, of catalytic CeO2 nanoparticles,” Inorganic Chemistry Communications, vol. 15, pp. 235–237, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. X. Zhao, L. Sheng, L. Wang et al., “Mechanisms of nanosized titanium dioxide-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis in male mice,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 11, article 47, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  43. B. Jovanović, L. Anastasova, E. W. Rowe, Y. Zhang, A. R. Clapp, and D. Palić, “Effects of nanosized titanium dioxide on innate immune system of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, 1820),” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 675–683, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. Q. Remijsen, T. W. Kuijpers, E. Wirawan, S. Lippens, P. Vandenabeele, and T. Vanden Berghe, “Dying for a cause: NETosis, mechanisms behind an antimicrobial cell death modality,” Cell Death and Differentiation, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 581–588, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. A. Mesa and G. Vasquez, “NETosis,” Autoimmune Diseases, vol. 2013, Article ID 651497, 7 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. ChemIDplus, ChemIDplus Advanced, Search Terms: Titanium Dioxide; CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 2005, http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/.
  47. R. Hu, L. Zheng, T. Zhang et al., “Molecular mechanism of hippocampal apoptosis of mice following exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 191, no. 1-3, pp. 32–40, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Tu, Y. Huang, H.-L. Li, and Z.-H. Gao, “The stress caused by nitrite with titanium dioxide nanoparticles under UVA irradiation in human keratinocyte cell,” Toxicology, vol. 299, no. 1, pp. 60–68, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. Paterson, J. M. Ataria, M. E. Hoque, D. C. Burns, and C. D. Metcalfe, “The toxicity of titanium dioxide nanopowder to early life stages of the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes),” Chemosphere, vol. 82, no. 7, pp. 1002–1009, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Z. Chen, Y. Wang, T. Ba et al., “Genotoxic evaluation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in vivo and in vitro,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 226, no. 3, pp. 314–319, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Q. Saquib, A. A. Al-Khedhairy, M. A. Siddiqui, F. M. Abou-Tarboush, A. Azam, and J. Musarrat, “Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and DNA damage in human amnion epithelial (WISH) cells,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 351–361, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. B. Trouiller, R. Reliene, A. Westbrook, P. Solaimani, and R. H. Schiestl, “Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce DNA damage and genetic instability in vivo in mice,” Cancer Research, vol. 69, no. 22, pp. 8784–8789, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. V. Freyre-Fonseca, N. L. Delgado-Buenrostro, E. B. Gutiérrez-Cirlos et al., “Titanium dioxide nanoparticles impair lung mitochondrial function,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 202, no. 2, pp. 111–119, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. L. Di Virgilio, M. Reigosa, P. M. Arnal, and M. Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, “Comparative study of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of titanium oxide and aluminium oxide nanoparticles in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 177, no. 1-3, pp. 711–718, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Ghosh, M. Bandyopadhyay, and A. Mukherjee, “Genotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles at two trophic levels: plant and human lymphocytes,” Chemosphere, vol. 81, no. 10, pp. 1253–1262, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. G. Janer, E. Mas del Molino, E. Fernández-Rosas, A. Fernández, and S. Vázquez-Campos, “Cell uptake and oral absorption of titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 228, no. 2, pp. 103–110, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. Fröhlich and E. Roblegg, “Models for oral uptake of nanoparticles in consumer products,” Toxicology, vol. 291, no. 1–3, pp. 10–17, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. Valant, D. Drobne, and S. Novak, “Effect of ingested titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the digestive gland cell membrane of terrestrial isopods,” Chemosphere, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 19–25, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. E. Brun, M. Carrière, and A. Mabondzo, “In vitro evidence of dysregulation of blood-brain barrier function after acute and repeated/long-term exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles,” Biomaterials, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 886–896, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. E. Huerta-García, J. A. Pérez-Arizti, S. G. Márquez-Ramírez et al., “Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce strong oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in glial cells,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 73, pp. 84–94, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Naya, N. Kobayashi, M. Ema et al., “In vivo genotoxicity study of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using comet assay following intratracheal instillation in rats,” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. E.-J. Park, J. Yoon, K. Choi, J. Yi, and K. Park, “Induction of chronic inflammation in mice treated with titanium dioxide nanoparticles by intratracheal instillation,” Toxicology, vol. 260, no. 1-3, pp. 37–46, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. Makumire, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, G. Köllisch, E. Redel, and A. Shonhai, “Immunomodulatory activity of zinc peroxide (ZnO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and their effects on DNA and protein integrity,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 227, no. 1, pp. 56–64, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. Ahmad, S. Dwivedi, S. Alarifi, A. A. Al-Khedhairy, and J. Musarrat, “Use of β-galactosidase (lacZ) gene α-complementation as a novel approach for assessment of titanium oxide nanoparticles induced mutagenesis,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, vol. 747, no. 2, pp. 246–252, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. L. Sheng, L. Wang, X. Sang et al., “Nano-sized titanium dioxide-induced splenic toxicity: a biological pathway explored using microarray technology,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 278, pp. 180–188, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. J. Wang, B. J. S. Sanderson, and H. Wang, “Cyto- and genotoxicity of ultrafine TiO2 particles in cultured human lymphoblastoid cells,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, vol. 628, no. 2, pp. 99–106, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. D. B. Warheit, C. M. Sayes, K. L. Reed, and K. A. Swain, “Health effects related to nanoparticle exposures: environmental, health and safety considerations for assessing hazards and risks,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 35–42, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. Y. Wang, P. Westerhoff, and K. D. Hristovski, “Fate and biological effects of silver, titanium dioxide, and C60 (fullerene) nanomaterials during simulated wastewater treatment processes,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 201-202, pp. 16–22, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. N. B. Hartmann, S. Legros, F. Von der Kammer, T. Hofmann, and A. Baun, “The potential of TiO2 nanoparticles as carriers for cadmium uptake in Lumbriculus variegatus and Daphnia magna,” Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 118-119, pp. 1–8, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. S. Ramsden, T. B. Henry, and R. D. Handy, “Sub-lethal effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the physiology and reproduction of zebrafish,” Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 126, pp. 404–413, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. Ates, V. Demir, R. Adiguzel, and Z. Arslan, “Bioaccumulation, subacute toxicity, and tissue distribution of engineered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in goldfish (Carassius auratus),” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2013, Article ID 460518, 6 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. L. Hao, Z. Wang, and B. Xing, “Effect of sub-acute exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles on oxidative stress and histopathological changes in Juvenile Carp (Cyprinus carpio),” Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1459–1466, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. H. Bang, T.-H. Le, S. K. Lee, P. Kim, J. S. Kim, and J. Min, “Toxicity assessment of titanium (IV) oxide nanoparticles using Daphnia magna (Water Flea),” Environmental Health and Toxicology, vol. 26, Article ID e2011002, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. C. Srisitthiratkul, V. Pongsorrarith, and N. Intasanta, “The potential use of nanosilver-decorated titanium dioxide nanofibers for toxin decomposition with antimicrobial and self-cleaning properties,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 21, pp. 8850–8856, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. R. Govindasamy and A. A. Rahuman, “Histopathological studies and oxidative stress of synthesized silver nanoparticles in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus),” Journal of Environmental Sciences (China), vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1091–1098, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. C.-M. Liao, Y.-H. Chiang, and C.-P. Chio, “Assessing the airborne titanium dioxide nanoparticle-related exposure hazard at workplace,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 162, pp. 57–65, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  77. D. Zheng, N. Wang, X. Wang et al., “Effects of the interaction of TiO2 nanoparticles with bisphenol A on their physicochemical properties and in vitro toxicity,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 199-200, pp. 426–432, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. N. B. Hartmann, F. Von der Kammer, T. Hofmann, M. Baalousha, S. Ottofuelling, and A. Baun, “Algal testing of titanium dioxide nanoparticles—testing considerations, inhibitory effects and modification of cadmium bioavailability,” Toxicology, vol. 269, no. 2-3, pp. 190–197, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. Q. Chen, D. Yin, S. Zhu, and X. Hu, “Adsorption of cadmium(II) on humic acid coated titanium dioxide,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 367, no. 1, pp. 241–248, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. Hu and H. J. Shipley, “Evaluation of desorption of Pb (II), Cu (II) and Zn (II) from titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 431, pp. 209–220, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. B. Jovanović, T. Ji, and D. Palić, “Gene expression of zebrafish embryos exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles and hydroxylated fullerenes,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 74, no. 6, pp. 1518–1525, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. A. Menard, D. Drobne, and A. Jemec, “Ecotoxicity of nanosized TiO2. Review of in vivo data,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 159, no. 3, pp. 677–684, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. D. Drobne, A. Jemec, and Ž. Pipan Tkalec, “In vivo screening to determine hazards of nanoparticles: nanosized TiO2,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 157, no. 4, pp. 1157–1164, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. G. Federici, B. J. Shaw, and R. D. Handy, “Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): gill injury, oxidative stress, and other physiological effects,” Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 415–430, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. Unnithan, M. U. Rehman, F. J. Ahmad, and M. Samim, “Concentration dependent toxicity of ∼20 nm anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles—an in vivo study on wistar rats,” Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 207–208, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. R. Posgai, C. B. Cipolla-McCulloch, K. R. Murphy, S. M. Hussain, J. J. Rowe, and M. G. Nielsen, “Differential toxicity of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on Drosophila melanogaster development, reproductive effort, and viability: size, coatings and antioxidants matter,” Chemosphere, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 34–42, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. A. Lankoff, W. J. Sandberg, A. Wegierek-Ciuk et al., “The effect of agglomeration state of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cellular response of HepG2, A549 and THP-1 cells,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 208, no. 3, pp. 197–213, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. García, R. Espinosa, L. Delgado et al., “Acute toxicity of cerium oxide, titanium oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles using standardized tests,” Desalination, vol. 269, no. 1–3, pp. 136–141, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. F. von der Kammer, S. Ottofuelling, and T. Hofmann, “Assessment of the physico-chemical behavior of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in aquatic environments using multi-dimensional parameter testing,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 158, no. 12, pp. 3472–3481, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. N. Asare, C. Instanes, W. J. Sandberg et al., “Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles in testicular cells,” Toxicology, vol. 291, no. 1-3, pp. 65–72, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus