BioMed Research International

BioMed Research International / 2001 / Article

Research article | Open Access

Volume 1 |Article ID 814570 |

Michael J. Graziano, Teresa A. Spoon, Erin A. Cockrell, Paul E. Rowse, Andrea J. Gonzales, "Induction of Apoptosis in Rat Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by the Anticancer Drug CI-994 (Acetyldinaline)", BioMed Research International, vol. 1, Article ID 814570, 10 pages, 2001.

Induction of Apoptosis in Rat Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by the Anticancer Drug CI-994 (Acetyldinaline)


CI-994 (acetyldinaline) is an investigational anticancer drug currently in clinical trials. In preclinical safety studies in rats and dogs, CI-994 resulted in significant toxicity to bone marrow and lymphoid tissue. To determine if apoptosis was involved in CI-994 toxicity, peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from untreated male Wistar rats and exposed to CI-994 (1, 3, 10, or 30 μM) in vitro for up to 24 hours. Morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis were evaluated using several techniques, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was measured as an indicator of cell necrosis. No evidence of apoptosis or necrosis was detected in lymphocytes exposed to CI-994 for 4 hours. After 24 hours, concentration-dependent increases in apoptosis characterized by DNA condensation, DNA fragmentation, and/or externalization of phosphatidyl serine were seen at CI-994 concentrations as low as 1 μM and were statistically significant beginning at 10 μM. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed the presence of DNA condensation, DNA fragmentation, cell shrinkage, and membrane blebbing in cells exposed to 30 μM CI-994. After 24 hours, the percent of maximum LDH release from lymphocytes treated with 10 and 30 μM CI-994 was 7% and 15%, respectively, compared with 0% in the controls. In comparison, morphological changes of apoptosis detected by fluorescent microscopy were observed in 79% of the lymphocytes at these two concentrations. Additionally, apoptosis was seen in more than 24% of lymphocytes exposed to 1 and 3 μM CI-994, whereas maximum LDH release was less than or equal to 1% at these concentrations. These results show that apoptosis is the primary mode of cell death in rat lymphocytes exposed to CI-994 in vitro.

Copyright © 2001 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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