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Association between Foot Posture Asymmetry and Static Stability in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Case-Control Study
Background. Interlimb asymmetries are considered to be closely related to knee osteoarthritis (KOA), but foot posture asymmetries in patients with KOA are scarcely reported. Objectives. We aimed to explore the asymmetrical difference in foot posture between the healthy adults and KOA patients and the relationship between foot posture asymmetry and static stability. Methods. 21 subjects suffering from KOA in the patient group (PG) and 21 healthy adults in the control group (CG) were included in this study. Foot postures on both feet were evaluated by using the foot posture index (FPI); subsequently, asymmetrical FPI scores between two feet were calculated for the two groups. Meanwhile, all the participants were tested with a standing on Dynamic and Static Balancing Instrument (Pro-kin 254P, TecnoBody Company, Italy) for bilateral stability assessment, and center of pressure (COP) parameters including sway length (SL, mm) and sway area (SA, mm2) were recorded. Results. Compared to CG, a larger percentage of supinated feet was examined in relatively severe legs (5, 23.81%), relatively moderate legs (4, 19.05%), and merged results (9, 21.43%) of PG (), and the percentage of severe asymmetry (38.1%) was higher in the PG (). Moreover, these relationships between the absolute value of asymmetry score and SL or SA were significant in CG and PG, the values below 0.01. Conclusions. Foot posture asymmetry is significantly associated with static stability both in KOA patients and healthy adults, and more severe asymmetry in foot posture was observed in KOA patients, so it is critical to evaluate foot posture asymmetry for treatment and rehabilitation for patients with KOA.
Overproduction of Glucose Oxidase by Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 Randomly Obtained Mutants and Study of Its Insecticidal Activity against Ephestia kuehniella
In order to enhance the production of glucose oxidase (GOD), random mutagenesis of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 was performed using the chemical and physical mutagens: nitric acid and UV irradiation, respectively. The majority of the isolated mutants showed good GOD production, but only some mutants presented a significant overproduction, as compared with the parent strain. The selected mutants (19 strains), showing an overproduction larger than 200%, are quite stable after three successive subcultures. Among these, six strains revealed an important improvement in submerged fermentation. The insecticidal activity of GOD produced by the wild and the selected mutant strains was evaluated against the third larval instars of E. kuehniella. Mutant strains U11, U12, U20, and U21, presenting the most important effect, displayed an LC50 value of 89.00, 88.51, 80.00, and 86.00 U/cm2, respectively, which was 1.5-fold more important than the wild strain (61 U/cm2). According to histopathology observations, the GOD enzyme showed approximately similar damage on the E. kuehniella midgut including rupture and disintegration of the epithelial layer and cellular vacuolization. The data supports, for the first time, the use of GOD as a pest control agent against E. kuehniella.
Identification of an Individualized Prognostic Signature Based on the RWSR Model in Early-Stage Bladder Carcinoma
Bladder cancer (BLCA) is the fourth common cancer among males in the United States, which is also the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in old males. BLCA has a high recurrence rate, with over 50% of patients which has at least one recurrence within five years. Due to the complexity of the molecular mechanisms and heterogeneous cancer feature, BLCA clinicians find it hard to make an efficient management decision as they lack reliable assessment of mortality risk. Meanwhile, there is currently no screening suitable prognostic signature or method recommended for early detection, which is significantly important to early-stage detection and prognosis. In this study, a novel model, named the risk-weighted sparse regression (RWSR) model, is constructed to identify a robust signature for patients of early-stage BLCA. The 17-gene signature is generated and then validated as an independent prognostic factor in BLCA cohorts from GSE13507 and TCGA_BLCA datasets. Meanwhile, a risk score model is developed and validated among the 17-gene signature. The risk score is also considered an independent factor for prognosis prediction, which is confirmed through prognosis analysis. The Kaplan-Meier with the log-rank test is used to assess survival difference. Furthermore, the predictive capacity of the signature is proved through stratification analysis. Finally, an effective patient classification is completed by a combination of the 17-gene signature and stage information, which is for better survival prediction and treatment decisions. Besides, 11 genes in the signature, such as coiled-coil domain containing 73 (CCDC73) and protein kinase, DNA-activated, and catalytic subunit (PRKDC), are proved to be prognosis marker genes or strongly associated with prognosis and progress of other types of cancer in published literature already. As a result, this paper would more accurately predict a patient’s prognosis and improve surveillance in the clinical setting, which may provide a quantitative and reliable decision-making basis for the treatment plan.
CXCR7 Inhibits Fibrosis via Wnt/β-Catenin Pathways during the Process of Angiogenesis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
Although SDF-1/CXCR7 plays an important role in angiogenesis, the function and the pathway of the SDF-1/CXCR7 axis might depend on the cell type or tissue origin and not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of CXCR7 in SDF-1-induced proliferation, migration, apoptosis, tube formation, and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and the potential pathway of SDF-1/CXCR7. We confirmed that the silencing of CXCR7 inhibited the proliferation of HUVECs and contributed the apoptosis, while overexpressed CXCR7 increased SDF-1-induced HUVECs migration and tube formation. However, upregulated CXCR7 inhibited the expression of α-SMA, suggesting that CXCR7 might attenuate EndMT. In addition, overexpressed CXCR7 activated AKT and ERK signaling pathways but suppressed Wnt/β-catenin pathways in HUVECs. The inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathways decreased the expression of α-SMA. Altogether, these results suggest that CXCR7 might inhibit fibrosis via Wnt/β-catenin pathways during the process of angiogenesis.
Identification of Functional Interactome of Gastric Cancer Cells with Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Protein HpaA by HPLC-MS/MS
HpaA as an outer membrane protein of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a significant role in the adhesion to the human stomach, but the functional relation between HpaA and gastric epithelial cells is still not clear. To screen the interaction between HpaA and cellular proteins in gastric epithelial cells, the HpaA protein from H. pylori 26695 fused with a tag (6× His) was expressed and purified successfully, the secondary structure was estimated by the Circular Dichroism (CD) spectrum, and the purified recombinant protein was used to perform the pull-down assays with gastric cancer cell lines (AGS and SGC-7901) lysates, respectively. The pull-down proteins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry system (HPLC-MS/MS). A total of 9 and 13 proteins related were analyzed from AGS and SGC-7901 cell lysates, respectively. ANXA2 was considered as putative HpaA functional partner discovered from lysates of both cell lines with high score and coverage. It is hypothesized that HpaA may be involved in the biological process of regulation of transcription and nucleic acid metabolism during the adhesion of H. pylori to human gastric epithelial cells, and HpaA-binding proteins also be used as targets for the development of antiadhesion drugs against H. pylori.
A 16-Year Study on Incidence and Progression of Diseased Sphenoethmoidal (Onodi) Cell
Traumatic operative injury of the optic nerve in an endoscopic sinus surgery may cause immediate or delayed blindness. It should be cautioned when operating in a sphenoethmoidal cell, or known as Onodi cell, with contact or bulge of the optic canal. It remains unclear how frequent progression to visual loss occurs and how long it progresses to visual loss because of a diseased sphenoethmoidal cell. Research to discuss these questions is expected to help decision making to treat diseased sphenoethmoidal cells. From July 2001 to June 2017, 216 patients received conservative endoscopic sinus surgery without opening a diseased sphenoethmoidal cell. We used their computed tomography images of paranasal sinuses to identify diseased sphenoethmoidal cells that could be associated with progression to visual loss. Among the 216 patients, 52.3% had at least one sphenoethmoidal cell, and 14.8% developed at least one diseased sphenoethmoidal cell. One patient developed acute visual loss 4412 days after the first computed tomography. Our results show that over half of the patients have a sphenoethmoidal cell but suggest a rare incidence of a diseased sphenoethmoidal cell progressing to visual loss during the follow-up period.