Craniofacial Reconstruction Method Based on Region Fusion StrategyRead the full article
BioMed Research International publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects within the biomedical sciences. The journal will accept both basic and translational research.
BioMed Research International maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Age-Related Immune Profile of the T Cell Receptor Repertoire, Thymic Recent Output Function, and miRNAs
Background. T cell immunity plays a central role in the body’s defense system, including maintaining homeostasis and preventing tumorigenesis and viral infection. Immune system functions degenerate with age, leading to immune senescence. Physiologically, immune senescence is characterized by a decrease in T cell receptor diversity, naive T cell deficiency, and alterations in T cell immune-related miRNAs. However, little is known about the characteristics of T cell immunosenescence in Chinese individuals. Results. A significant decrease in the miR-17, miR-92a, and miR-181a levels in PBMCs was detected with age. The miR-92a and miR-181a levels were upregulated in CBMCs when comparing healthy individuals to group I (0~9 years), whereas miR-17 was downregulated. The sjTREC level in PBMCs was negatively correlated with age, and a sharp decrease in sjTRECs was found between groups I and II (10~19 years). Twenty-four TCR Vβ subfamilies could be detected in most samples, and most displayed polyclonality, while skewed expression of the Vβ subfamilies as well as an increased oligoclonal tendency was found with age. Similarly, the frequencies of the TCR Vγ and Vδ subfamilies decreased with age, and the alteration in clonality appeared to be stable at different ages. Conclusion. We made the novel observation of T cell immunosenescence with age in Chinese individuals, which may provide information for immune targets to enhance the T cell immune response in immunotherapy settings for elderly patients.
The Combined Use of Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy and Dermal Substitutes for Tissue Repair and Regeneration
In clinical practice, skin defects occur frequently due to various kinds of acute and chronic diseases. The standard treatment for these wounds is autografting, which usually results in complications such as scar formation and new wounds at donor sites. The advent of dermal substitutes has provided a novel method for wound repair, and rapid angiogenesis of the dermal substitutes is crucial for the graft to take. At present, many strategies have been developed to improve the process of vascularisation, some of which have shown promising potentials, but they could be very far from clinical applications. Most recently, negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been used extensively in clinical practice for wound care and management. It has been reported that NPWT reduces the time required for vascular ingrowth into the dermal substitute and improves graft take, indicating great potentials for wound repair. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the combined use of NPWT and dermal substitutes for tissue repair and regeneration. Relative concerns and prospects are also discussed.
Mucopolysaccharidoses I and II: Brief Review of Therapeutic Options and Supportive/Palliative Therapies
Purpose. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are group of inherited lysosomal storage diseases caused by mutations of enzymes involved in catalyzing different glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS I and MPS II exhibit both somatic and neurological symptoms with a relatively high disease incidence. Hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) and intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) have had a significant impact on the treatment and comprehension of disease. This review is aimed at providing a comprehensive evaluation of the pros and cons of HSCT and ERT, as well as an up-to-date knowledge of new drugs under development. In addition, multiple disease management strategies for the uncontrollable manifestations of MPS I and MPS II to improve patients’ quality of life are presented. Findings. Natural history of MPS I and MPS II shows that somatic and neurological symptoms occur earlier in severe forms of MPS I than in MPS II. ERT increases life expectancy and alleviates some of the somatic symptoms, but musculoskeletal, ophthalmological, and central nervous system (CNS) manifestations are not controlled. Additionally, life-long treatment burdens and immunogenicity restriction are unintended consequences of ERT application. HSCT, another treatment method, is effective in controlling the CNS symptoms and hence has been adopted as the standard treatment for severe types of MPS I. However, it is ineffective in MPS II, which can be explained by the relatively late diagnosis. In addition, several factors such as transplant age limits or graft-versus-host disease in HSCT have limited its application for patients. Novel therapies, including BBB-penetrable-ERT, gene therapy, and substrate reduction therapy, are under development to control currently unmanageable manifestations. BBB-penetrable-ERT is being studied comprehensively in the hopes of being used in the near future as a method to effectively control CNS symptoms. Gene therapy has the potential to “cure” the disease with a one-time treatment rather than just alleviate symptoms, which makes it an attractive treatment strategy. Several clinical studies on gene therapy reveal that delivering genes directly into the brain achieves better results than intravenous administration in patients with neurological symptoms. Considering new drugs are still in clinical stage, disease management with close monitoring and supportive/palliative therapy is of great importance for the time being. Proper rehabilitation therapy, including physical and occupational therapy, surgical intervention, or medications, can benefit patients with uncontrolled musculoskeletal, respiratory, ophthalmological, and neurological manifestations.
Roux-en-Y and Billroth II Reconstruction after Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Meta-Analysis of Complications
Objective. To evaluate Roux-en-Y and Billroth II reconstruction following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Methods. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials that compared Roux-en-Y and Billroth II reconstruction following PD up to December 2019. RevMan 5.3 software was used for the statistical analysis. Results. Four RCTs and five controlled clinical trials were included, with a total of 1,072 patients (500 and 572 patients in the Roux-en-Y and Billroth II groups, respectively). No significant differences in delayed gastric emptying (DGE), A-grade DGE, B-grade DGE, or C-grade DGE were observed between the Roux-en-Y and Billroth II reconstruction groups after PD (, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50–2.03, ; , 95% CI: 0.17–1.45, ; , 95% CI: 0.29–1.38, ; and , 95% CI: 0.38–11.99, ). No significant difference in the incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistula, abscess, bile leaks, infection, postoperative bleeding, or the length of the postoperative hospital stay was observed between the Roux-en-Y and Billroth II groups (), but the operation time was significantly different (, 95% CI: 7.14–56.17, ). Conclusions. Billroth II reconstruction after PD did not significantly reduce the incidence of DGE or other complications but shortened the operation time compared to Roux-en-Y reconstruction. However, the results must be verified by further high-quality, large RCTs or controlled clinical trials.
Neuroprotective Effect of Syringic Acid by Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Mass in Diabetic Rats
Diabetes is a metabolic complaint associated with oxidative stress and dysfunction of mitochondria. One of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus is neuropathy. This study evaluated the possible neuroprotective effects of syringic acid (SYR), a natural polyphenolic derivative of benzoic acid, on oxidative damage and mitochondria in the brain, spinal cord, and sciatic nerve of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Different groups of rats including normal control, diabetics (induced by streptozotocin), diabetic groups treated with 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg of SYR, and non-diabetic group treated with only 100 mg/kg of SYR were treated for 6 weeks. Learning and memory function, physical coordination, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant indexes, as well as mRNA expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, were measured in the brain, spinal cord, and sciatic nerves. Diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg SYR exhibited significantly improved learning, memory, and movement deficiency (). SYR 100 mg/kg also significantly upregulated the brain mRNA expression of PGC-1α and NRF-1, the key regulators of energy metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial biogenesis. In addition, SYR 100 mg/kg and SYR 50 mg/kg increased the mtDNA/nDNA ratio in the brain and the spinal cord of diabetic rats, respectively (). SYR attenuated the lipid peroxidation in all the tissues, but not significant effects were observed on GSH, AChE, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity. In all the tests, nonsignificant differences were observed between the control and SYR 100 mg/kg groups. Moreover, SYR reduced inflammation and demyelination in sciatic nerves. This is the first study to reveal the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism by SYR, beyond its antioxidant role in the diabetic rats’ brain and spinal tissues.
Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 2: Properties and Physiological Roles
Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 (ENT2) is a bidirectional transporter embedded in the biological membrane and is ubiquitously found in most tissue and cell types. ENT2 mediates the uptake of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleobase besides transporting a variety of nucleoside-derived drugs, mostly in anticancer therapy. Since high expression of ENT2 has been correlated with advanced stages of different types of cancers, consequently, this has gained significant interest in the role of ENT2 as a potential therapeutic target. Furthermore, ENT2 plays critical roles in signaling pathway and cell cycle progression. Therefore, elucidating the physiological roles of ENT2 and its properties may contribute to a better understanding of ENT2 roles beyond their transportation mechanism. This review is aimed at highlighting the main roles of ENT2 and at providing a brief update on the recent research.