BEZ235 Increases the Sensitivity of Hepatocellular Carcinoma to Sorafenib by Inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR and Inducing AutophagyRead the full article
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Intracranial Angioplasty with Enterprise Stent for Intracranial Atherosclerotic Stenosis: A Single-Center Experience and a Systematic Review
Background. The high rate of periprocedural complications for the endovascular stent procedure in the Stenting Versus Aggressive Medical Management Therapy for Intracranial Arterial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) trial resulted in it being less recommended than medical therapy to treat intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS). Because Enterprise stent use might reduce the incidence of complications in ICAS treatment compared to other frequently used stents, this paper evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the Enterprise stent for the treatment of ICAS. Methods. We performed a comprehensive literature search for reports on intracranial angioplasty using the Enterprise stent for ICAS treatment from the earliest date available from each database to May 2020 for PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Clinical Trials databases. We also reviewed the single-center experience of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. We extracted information regarding periprocedural complications, procedure-related morbidity, mortality, immediate angiographic outcome, and long-term clinical and angiographic outcomes, among others. Event rates were pooled across studies using random-effects or fixed-effects models depending on the heterogeneity. Results. Five hundred fifty-seven patients with 588 lesions from seven studies, including the institutional series, were included in the analysis. The incidence of stroke or death within 30 days was 7.4% (95% confidence interval (CI), 5.5%–10.1%). The incidence of ischemic stroke or TIA in the territory of the qualifying artery beyond 30 days and during follow-up was 3.2% (95% CI, 1.1%–9.5%). The incidence of in-stent restenosis was 10.1% (95% CI, 4.6%–22.2%), and the incidence of symptomatic restenosis was 4.1% (95% CI, 1.7%–9.9%). Conclusions. Intracranial angioplasty utilizing the Enterprise stent for ICAS treatment was relatively safe and effective but required further verification using additional sources for evidence.
Expression of miR-93-5p as a Potential Predictor of the Severity of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension
Background. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). However, the potential correlation between miRNA expression and the severity of CTEPH remains unclear. Our previous study indicated that miRNAs hsa-let-7b-3p, hsa-miR-17-5p, hsa-miR-106b-5p, hsa-miR-3202, hsa-miR-665, and hsa-miR-93-5p are closely involved in CTEPH. This study assessed the associations between the expression levels of these miRNAs and clinical parameters in CTEPH patients. Methods. A total of eight CTEPH patients and eight healthy adults as a reference group were included, and clinical data including total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), uric acid (UA), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were collected. Right heart catheterization was conducted to obtain hemodynamic data including cardiac index (CI). The expression levels of let-7b-3p, miR-17-5p, miR-106b-5p, miR-3202, miR-665, and miR-93-5p were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Correlation analysis was applied to estimate the associations between miRNA expression levels and clinical parameters in CTEPH patients. Results. Serum TP and Alb levels were decreased, while LDH, HBDH, and UA levels were increased in CTEPH patients compared with the reference group (). miR-3202 and miR-665 were upregulated, whereas let-7b-3p, miR-17-5p, miR-106b-5p, and miR-93-5p were downregulated in CTEPH patients relative to the reference group (). miR-93-5p expression was positively correlated with NT-proBNP level and negatively correlated with CI (). Moreover, let-7b-3p tended to be positively correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure. Conclusions. miR-93-5p expression was associated with the severity of CTEPH and could act as a potential predictor of high-risk CTEPH.
Comprehensive Analysis of Common Different Gene Expression Signatures in the Neutrophils of Sepsis
The central component of sepsis pathogenesis is inflammatory disorder, which is related to dysfunction of the immune system. However, the specific molecular mechanism of sepsis has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of our study was to identify genes that are significantly changed during sepsis development, for the identification of potential pathogenic factors. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in 88 control and 214 septic patient samples. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses were performed using David. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was established using STRING and Cytoscape. Further validation was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We identified 37 common DEGs. GO and pathway enrichment indicated that enzymes and transcription factors accounted for a large proportion of DEGs; immune system and inflammation signaling demonstrated the most significant changes. Furthermore, eight hub genes were identified via PPI analysis. Interestingly, four of the top five upregulated and all downregulated DEGs were involved in immune and inflammation signaling. In addition, the most intensive hub gene AKT1 and the top DEGs in human clinical samples were validated using RT-PCR. This study explored the possible molecular mechanisms underpinning the inflammatory, immune, and PI3K/AKT pathways related to sepsis development.
CXCL1 Clone Evolution Induced by the HDAC Inhibitor Belinostat Might Be a Favorable Prognostic Indicator in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most lethal subtype of breast cancer due to its lack of treatment options. Patients with TNBC frequently develop resistance to chemotherapy. As epigenetic-based antineoplastic drugs, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have achieved particular efficacy in lymphoma but are less efficacious in solid tumors, and the resistance mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, the GSE129944 microarray dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus database was downloaded, and fold changes at the transcriptome level of a TNBC line (MDA-MB-231) after treatment with belinostat were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were used to identify the critical biological processes. Construction and analysis of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were performed to screen candidate genes related to cancer prognosis. A total of 465 DEGs were identified, including 240 downregulated and 225 upregulated genes. The cytokine-cytokine receptor pathway was identified as being significantly changed. Furthermore, the expression of CXCL1 was implicated as a favorable factor in the overall survival of breast cancer patients. With in vitro approaches, we also showed that belinostat could induce the expression of CXCL1 in another 2 TNBC cell lines (BT-549 and HCC-1937). We speculate that belinostat-induced CXCL1 expression could be one of the results of the stress clone evolution of cells after HDACi treatment. These findings provide new insights into clone evolution during HDACi treatment, which might guide us to a novel perspective that various mutation-targeted treatments should be implemented during the whole treatment cycle.
Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies a Novel TRPM4 Mutation in a Chinese Family with Atrioventricular Block
Atrioventricular block (AVB) is a leading cause of sudden cardiac death, and most of AVB cases are presented as autosomal dominant. The electrocardiogram of AVB patients presents an abnormal progressive cardiac conduction disorder between atria and ventricles. Transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) is a nonselective Ca2+-activated cation channel gene defined as a novel disease-causing gene of AVB. So far, 47 mutations of TRPM4 have been recorded in Human Gene Mutation Database. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between TRPM4 mutation and pathogenesis of AVB. We investigated a Chinese family with AVB by whole-exome sequencing. An arrhythmia-related gene filtering strategy was used to analyze the disease-causing mutations. Three different bioinformatics programs were used to predict the effects of the mutation result. A novel mutation of TRPM4 was identified (c.2455C>T/p.R819C) and cosegregated in the affected family members. The three bioinformatics programs predicted that the novel mutation may lead to damage. Our study will contribute to expand the spectrum of TRPM4 mutations and supply accurate genetic testing information for further research and the clinical therapy of AVB.
Bilobalide Enhances AMPK Activity to Improve Liver Injury and Metabolic Disorders in STZ-Induced Diabetes in Immature Rats via Regulating HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway
This study was aimed at examining the effect and underlying mechanisms of bilobalide (BB) on hepatic injury in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes mellitus (DM) in immature rats. Immature rats (one day old) were randomly divided into five groups: group I, control nondiabetic rats; group II, STZ-induced, untreated diabetic rats; groups III/IV/V, STZ-induced and BB-treated diabetic rats, which were intraperitoneally injected with BB (2.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg) after 3 days followed by STZ treatment. We observed that BB improved the histopathological changes and maintained normal glucose metabolism, blood lipid, and liver function indicators, such as fasting blood glucose, obesity index, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, fast serum insulin, adiponectin, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alanine transaminase (ALT) in STZ-induced DM in immature rats by a biochemical analyzer or ELISA. Meanwhile, Western blot analysis showed that in STZ-induced DM immature rats, BB decreased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9 while enhancing the Bcl-2 expression; BB downregulated the expression of ACC related to fat anabolism, while upregulating the expression of CPT-1 related to fat catabolism. Strikingly, treatment with BB significantly increased the expression of AMPKα1 as well as inhibited HMGB1, TLR4, and p-P65 expression in hepatic tissues of immature DM rats. AMPK inhibitor (compound C, CC) cotreated with BB undermined the protective effect of BB on the liver injury. The results of the present study suggested BB may have a significant role in alleviating liver damage in the STZ-induced immature DM rats.