Preparation and Nanoencapsulation of Lectin from Lepidium sativum on Chitosan-Tripolyphosphate Nanoparticle and Their Cytotoxicity against Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells (HepG2)Read the full article
BioMed Research International publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects within the biomedical sciences. The journal will accept both basic and translational research.
BioMed Research International maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Altered Bioavailability of Nitric Oxide and L-Arginine Is a Key Determinant of Endothelial Dysfunction in Preeclampsia
Background. Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Evidence indicates that endothelial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. This study assessed the level of the components of the arginine-nitric oxide pathway to evaluate endothelial dysfunction in normotensive pregnancies and pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia. Methods. This case-control study was conducted among pregnant women who visited Comboni Hospital from January 2017 to May 2018. A total of 180 pregnant women comprising 88 preeclamptic women (PE) and 92 healthy normotensive pregnant women (NP) were recruited. Sociodemographic, clinical, and obstetric data were obtained using validated questionnaires. Blood pressure and anthropometrics were measured, and blood samples were collected for the estimation of nitric oxide (NO∙), L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and 3-nitrotyrosine using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Results. The mean NO∙ () and L-arginine/ADMA ratio () was significantly lower in PE compared to NP while mean L-arginine (), ADMA (), and 3-nitrotyrosine () were significantly higher in PE than NP. ADMA showed a significant positive association with systolic blood pressure (, ) in severe PE. Women with PE had significant intrauterine growth restriction () and low birth weight infants () when compared to NP. Conclusion. Preeclampsia is associated with reduced NO∙ bioavailability, L-arginine/ADMA ratio, and elevated levels of ADMA and 3-nitrotyrosine. Measurements of the levels of these parameters can help in the early prediction of endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia. Exogenous therapeutic supplementation with L-arginine during pregnancy to increase the L-arginine/ADMA ratio should be considered to improve endothelial function in preeclampsia and pregnant women at risk of developing preeclampsia.
Rapamycin-Induced Autophagy Promotes the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Synovium-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Temporomandibular Joint in Response to IL-1β
Cartilage defects in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) lead to chronic pain and seldom heal. Synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) exhibit superior chondrogenesis and have become promising seed cells for cartilage tissue engineering. However, local inflammatory conditions that affect the repair of articular cartilage by SMSCs present a challenge, and the specific mechanism through which the function remains unclear. Thus, it is important to explore the chondrogenesis of SMSCs under inflammatory conditions of TMD such that they can be used more effectively in clinical treatment. In this study, we obtained SMSCs from TMD patients with severe cartilage injuries. In response to stimulation with IL-1β, which is well known as one of the most prevalent cytokines in TMD, MMP13 expression increased, while that of SOX9, aggrecan, and collagen II decreased during chondrogenic differentiation. At the same time, IL-1β upregulated the expression of mTOR and decreased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I and the formation of autophagosomes. Further study revealed that rapamycin pretreatment promoted the migration of SMSCs and the expression of chondrogenesis-related markers in the presence of IL-1β by inducing autophagy. 3-Benzyl-5-((2-nitrophenoxy)methyl)-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (3BDO), a new activator of mTOR, inhibited autophagy and increased the expression of p-GSK3βser9 and β-catenin, simulating the effect of IL-1β stimulation. Furthermore, rapamycin reduced the expression of mTOR, whereas the promotion of LC3-II/LC3-I was blocked by the GSK3β inhibitor TWS119. Taken together, these results indicate that rapamycin enhances the chondrogenesis of SMSCs by inducing autophagy, and GSK3β may be an important regulator in the process of rapamycin-induced autophagy. Thus, inducing autophagy may be a useful approach in the chondrogenic differentiation of SMSCs in the inflammatory microenvironment and may represent a novel TMD treatment.
HO-1/PINK1 Regulated Mitochondrial Fusion/Fission to Inhibit Pyroptosis and Attenuate Septic Acute Kidney Injury
Background. Endotoxin-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), a disease characterized by marked oxidative stress and inflammation disease, is a major cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Mitochondrial fission and pyroptosis often occur in AKI. However, the underlying biological pathways involved in endotoxin AKI remain poorly understood, especially those related to mitochondrial dynamics equilibrium disregulation and pyroptosis. Previous studies suggest that heme oxygenase- (HO-) 1 confers cytoprotection against AKI during endotoxic shock, and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) takes part in mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, in this study, we examine the roles of HO-1/PINK1 in maintaining the dynamic process of mitochondrial fusion/fission to inhibit pyroptosis and mitigate acute kidney injury in rats exposed to endotoxin. Methods. An endotoxin-associated AKI model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used in our study. Wild-type (WT) rats and PINK1 knockout (PINK1KO) rats, respectively, were divided into four groups: the control, LPS, Znpp+LPS, and Hemin+LPS groups. Rats were sacrificed 6 h after intraperitoneal injecting LPS to assess renal function, oxidative stress, and inflammation by plasma. Mitochondrial dynamics, morphology, and pyroptosis were evaluated by histological examinations. Results. In the rats with LPS-induced endotoxemia, the expression of HO-1 and PINK1 were upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels. These rats also exhibited inflammatory response, oxidative stress, mitochondrial fission, pyroptosis, and decreased renal function. After upregulating HO-1 in normal rats, pyroptosis was inhibited; mitochondrial fission and inflammatory response to oxidative stress were decreased; and the renal function was improved. The effects were reversed by adding Znpp (a type of HO-1 inhibitor). Finally, after PINK1 knockout, there is no statistical difference in the LPS-treated group and Hemin or Znpp pretreated group. Conclusions. HO-1 inhibits inflammation response and oxidative stress and regulates mitochondria fusion/fission to inhibit pyroptosis, which can alleviate endotoxin-induced AKI by PINK1.
Knowledge towards Prevention and Early Detection of Chronic Kidney Disease and Associated Factors among Hypertensive Patients at a Chronic Illness Clinic of Jimma Town Public Hospitals
Background. Morbidity and mortality due to chronic kidney disease are increasing among hypertensive patients in Sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease are not diagnosed at an early stage because of poor knowledge. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study conducted in Ethiopia about knowledge of hypertensive patients towards prevention and early detection of chronic kidney disease. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess knowledge towards prevention and early detection of chronic kidney disease and associated factors among hypertensive patients at Jimma town public hospitals, Ethiopia. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 332 hypertensive patients using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and medical record reviewing from April 5 to May 21, 2019. Study participants were selected using simple random sampling. Data were collected by using a standardized questionnaire. Data were entered into Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 23. Descriptive statistics and bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were applied. To identify factors, a 95% confidence level and value of less than 0.05 were considered. Results. Over half (59.6%) were males, and the mean (±SD) age of participants was 54.92 (12.91) years. Among the total participants, more than half of them (47.9%) had good knowledge. Attending secondary education (, ), higher education (, ), working in private sectors (, ), taking three and above drugs per day (, ), and having a family history of kidney disease (, ) were significantly associated with knowledge. Conclusion and Recommendation. Near to half of the study participants had good knowledge towards prevention and early detection of chronic kidney disease. Attending secondary education and above, working in private sectors, taking three and above drugs per day, and having a family history of kidney disease were independent predictors of knowledge. Hypertensive patients should be encouraged to be aware of risk factors of CKD, and health care providers should educate hypertensive patients about the prevention and early detection of chronic kidney disease.
Extraction and Hypolipidemic Activity of Low Molecular Weight Polysaccharides Isolated from Rosa Laevigata Fruits
Three novel low molecular weight polysaccharides (RLP-1a, RLP-2a, and RLP-3a) with 9004, 8761, and 7571 Da were first obtained by purifying the crude polysaccharides from the fruits of a traditional Chinese medicinal herb Rosae Laevigatae. The conditions for polysaccharides from the R. Laevigatae fruit (RLP) extraction were optimized by the response surface methodology, and the optimal conditions were as follows: extraction temperature, 93°C; extraction time, 2.8 h; water to raw material ratio, 22; extraction frequency, 3. Structural characterization showed that RLP-1a consisted of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, glucose, and galactose with the ratio of 3.14 : 8.21 : 1 : 1.37 : 4.90, whereas RLP-2a was composed of rhamnose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with the ratio of 1.70 : 1 : 93.59 : 2.73, and RLP-3a was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with the ratio of 6.04 : 26.51 : 2.05 : 1 : 3.17 : 31.77. The NMR analyses revealed that RLP-1a, RLP-2a, and RLP-3a contained 6, 4, and 6 types of glycosidic linkages, respectively. RLP-1a and RLP-3a exhibited distinct antioxidant abilities on the superoxide anions, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. RLPs could decrease the serum lipid levels, elevate the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, enhance the antioxidant enzymes levels, and upregulate of FADS2, ACOX3, and SCD-1 which involved in the lipid metabolic processes and oxidative stress in the high-fat diet-induced rats. These results suggested that RLPs ameliorated the high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced lipid metabolism disturbance in the rat liver through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Low molecular weight polysaccharides of RLP could be served as a novel potential functional food for improving hyperlipidemia and liver oxidative stress responses.
Osteokines and Bone Markers at Rest and following Plyometric Exercise in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women
The effect of plyometric exercise on bone biomarkers has been studied in pediatric and young adult populations in order to better understand how exercise influences bone homeostasis. However, there are no such data in postmenopausal women, a group characterized by an uncoupling of the bone resorption-formation cycle. This study examined the serum concentrations of sclerostin, dickkopf-1 (DKK1), c-terminal crosslinking telopeptides of type I collagen (CTXI), and procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (PINP) at rest and following a single bout of plyometric exercise in 20 premenopausal ( years) and 20 postmenopausal women ( years). The exercise consisted of 128 jumps, organized into 5 circuit stations. Blood samples were obtained prior to and 5 min, 1 h, and 24 h postexercise. At rest, postmenopausal women had significantly higher sclerostin and CTXI, but lower DKK1 than premenopausal women. Sclerostin increased 5 min postexercise only in the premenopausal group. DKK1 decreased 24 h postexercise in the premenopausal women while it decreased 1 h postexercise in the postmenopausal women. In both groups, CTXI did not change across time and PINP decreased 5 min and 1 h postexercise (). The PINP/CTXI ratio decreased 5 min and 1 h postexercise then significantly increased 24 h postexercise only in premenopausal women. These results indicate that although plyometric exercise is effective in eliciting osteoanabolic effects in younger women; such an effect is not evident in postmenopausal women.