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Accuracy on Scanned Images of Full Arch Models with Orthodontic Brackets by Various Intraoral Scanners in the Presence of Artificial Saliva
Aim. This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of scanned images of 4 clinically used intraoral scanners (CS3600, i500, Trios3, Omnicam) when scanning the surface of full arch models with various kinds of orthodontic brackets in the presence of artificial saliva. Materials and Methods. Four study models were prepared; bonded with ceramic, metal, and resin brackets, respectively, and without brackets. Reference images were taken by scanning the models with an industrial scanner. Study models were then applied with an artificial saliva and scanned 10 times, respectively, with the above 4 intraoral scanners. All images were converted to STL file format and analyzed with 3D analysis software. By superimposing with the reference images, mean maximum discrepancy values and mean discrepancy values were collected and compared. For statistical analysis, two-way ANOVA was used. Results. Omnicam (1.247 ± 0.255) showed higher mean maximum discrepancy values. CS3600 (0.758 ± 0.170), Trios3 (0.854 ± 0.166), and i500 (0.975 ± 0.172) performed relatively favourably. Resin (1.119 ± 0.255) and metal (1.086 ± 0.132) brackets showed higher mean maximum discrepancy values. Nonbracket (0.776 ± 0.250) and ceramic bracket (0.853 ± 0.269) models generally showed lower mean maximum discrepancy values in studied scanners. In mean discrepancy values, the difference between scanners was not statistically significant whereas among brackets, resin bracketed models (0.093 ± 0.142) showed the highest value. Conclusion. Intraoral scanners and brackets had significant influences on the scanned images with application of artificial saliva on the study models. It may be expected to have similar outcomes in an intraoral environment. Some data showed the discrepancy values up to about 1.5 mm that would require more caution in using intraoral scanners for production of detailed appliances and records.
Association of SCN1A, SCN2A, and UGT2B7 Polymorphisms with Responsiveness to Valproic Acid in the Treatment of Epilepsy
Purpose. The efficacy of valproic acid (VPA) varies widely in clinical treatment of epileptic patients. Our study is aimed at exploring a potential association between polymorphisms of SCN1A, SCN2A, and UGT2B7 genetic factors and VPA responses. Methods. In this observational study, a total of 114 epileptic patients only treated with VPA for at least 1 year were included to explore the genetic polymorphisms of drug responses (mean follow-up time: years). Thirty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three candidate genes that related with drug-metabolizing enzymes and receptors were genotyped. Results. Of the 31 SNPs, eight were significantly associated with VPA responses, including rs1381105, rs2162600, rs10197716, rs2119068, rs2119067, rs353116, rs353112 and rs6740895. The interaction between rs10197716 and rs2119068 was the most significantly correlated with VPA responses compared with other combinations (the highest VPA-responsive rate 0.92 versus the lowest VPA-responsive rate 0.33, ). Conclusion. The study indicated that eight SNPs and SNP-SNP interaction may be associated with VPA responses in Chinese Han epileptic patients. The SNPs were rs1381105 (SCN1A), rs2162600 (SCN1A), rs10197716 (SCN2A), rs2119068 (SCN2A), rs2119067 (SCN2A), rs353116 (SCN2A), rs353112 (SCN2A) and rs6740895 (SCN2A), respectively. The interaction between the three pairs of rs10197716-rs2119068, rs10197716-rs11889342 and rs7598931-rs12233719 was the most significant for VPA. This implied that these SNPs may play an important role in the pharmacogenomics mechanism of valproic acid.
DV200 Index for Assessing RNA Integrity in Next-Generation Sequencing
Poor quality of biological samples will result in an inaccurate analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS). Therefore, methods to accurately evaluate sample integrity are needed. Among methods for evaluating RNA quality, the RNA integrity number equivalent (RINe) is widely used, whereas the DV200, which evaluates the percentage of fragments of >200 nucleotides, is also used as a quality assessment standard. In this study, we compared the RINe and DV200 RNA quality indexes to determine the most suitable RNA index for the NGS analysis. Seventy-one RNA samples were extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples (), fresh-frozen samples (), or cell lines (). After assessing RNA quality using the RINe and DV200, we prepared two kinds of stranded mRNA sequencing libraries. Finally, we calculated the correlation between each RNA quality index and the amount of library product (1st PCR product per input RNA). The DV200 measure showed stronger correlation with the amount of library product than the RINe ( for the DV200 versus 0.6927 for the RINe). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that the DV200 was the better marker for predicting efficient library production than the RINe using a threshold of >10 ng/ng for the amount of the 1st PCR product per input RNA (cutoff value for the RINe and DV200, 2.3 and 66.1%; area under the curve, 0.99 and 0.91; sensitivity, 82% and 92%; and specificity, 93% and 100%, respectively). Our results indicate that NGS libraries prepared using RNA samples with the DV200 exhibit greater sensitivity and specificity than those prepared with the RINe . These findings suggest that the DV200 is superior to the RINe, especially for low-quality RNA, because it is a more consistent assessment of the amount of the 1st NGS library product per input.
Assessment of the Implementation of Critical Pathway in Stroke Patients: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study
Background. The complications after stroke inhibit functional recovery and worsen the prognosis of patients. The implementation of a critical pathway (CP) can facilitate functional recovery after stroke by enabling comprehensive and systematic structured rehabilitation. Objective. To evaluate the effects of the implementation of CP in stroke patients for 10 years. Methods. The data were collected from 960 patients who were diagnosed with a stroke at the university hospital emergency room, who were transferred to the rehabilitation center after the acute phase, and who were discharged after undergoing comprehensive rehabilitation. Based on data collected over a period of 10 years, changes in demographic and stroke characteristics, preexisting medical conditions, poststroke complications, and functional states, as well as length of stay (LOS), were evaluated before and after CP implementation. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) were used to evaluate functional states. Results. There were no significant differences in demographic and stroke characteristics before and after CP implementation. For those with preexisting medical conditions, there was no significant difference between before and after CP implementation. The majority of the complications were significantly decreased after the implementation of CP. Except for hemorrhagic stroke patients, the Brunnstrom stage in the ischemic and total stroke patients after CP implementation was significantly increased in the upper and lower extremities. The total hospitalization LOS and rehabilitation center hospitalization times were significantly reduced in ischemic and total stroke patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the functional gain of K-MBI and the efficiency of rehabilitation between before and after CP implementation. Conclusion. The implementation of CP allows for better application of evidence- and guideline-based key interventions and helps to provide early, comprehensive, organized, and more specialized care to stroke patients. Despite limited evidence, CP is still recommended as a means of promoting best practices in hospital care for stroke patients.
Hematologic Features of Children and Adolescent Patients with Acute Hypersensitivity Reactions on Drugs and Food
Hematological parameters and blood biochemical markers were measured in 131 children and adolescent patients (70 boys) aged 2 to 17 years with acute hypersensitivity reactions induced by food (59 patients) and medicines (72 patients) in order to establish differences in clinical manifestations and hematological parameters in children with food and drug hypersensitivity and to elaborate the hematological criteria for differentiating the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of various types of hypersensitivity. Both groups of patients had comparable clinical symptoms with a predominance of skin lesions. The significant differences between the groups with drug- and food-induced hypersensitivity reactions were found in their red blood characteristics. In patients with hypersensitive reactions to drugs, significantly lower levels of erythrocytes and hemoglobin were found, while the median values of these parameters did not exceed the limits of reference values. These differences persisted also in the analysis of hemoglobin values, analyzed with accounting for the age and sex of patients. The reduction of hemoglobin was not accompanied by an increase in bilirubin in these patients. Thus, this fact does not support the assumption about the drug-induced hemolysis as a main effect influencing the hematological parameters. Hemogram evaluation performed during 7–10 days after admission demonstrated a higher level of hemoglobin in both groups. The biochemical markers were not significantly distinguished except bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase which were higher in patients with food-induced hypersensitivity.
Diagnostic Role of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness for Coronary Artery Disease: A Meta-Analysis
Background. The present meta-analysis was conducted to confirm whether carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) could serve as an accurate diagnostic method for coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods. Databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Embase were searched for potential articles. The articles were selected according to inclusion criteria. Pooled sensitivity and specificity with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to confirm the diagnostic role of IMT for CAD. and value were used to assess the existence of heterogeneity. or indicated significant heterogeneity. Area under the curve (AUC) of summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC) represented the diagnostic accuracy of IMT. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the robustness of pooled outcomes. Deek’s funnel plot was drawn to detect potential publication bias. Results. 22 eligible articles were selected in the present meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of IMT for diagnosing CAD were 0.68 (0.57–0.77) and 0.70 (0.64–0.75), respectively. The corresponding AUC was 0.74 (0.70–0.78). Subgroup analyses based on cutoff value of IMT were performed. A cutoff value of 1 mm was demonstrated to be much more accurate diagnostic criteria for CAD (sensitivity: 0.66; specificity: 0.79; AUC: 0.80). Sensitivity analysis indicated that the pooled results were robust. Deek’s funnel plot indicated no significant publication bias (). Conclusion. Carotid IMT may serve as an accurate diagnostic tool. A cutoff value of 1 mm seems to provide much more accurate diagnostic results for CAD.