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Development of Multiscale Transcriptional Regulatory Network in Esophageal Cancer Based on Integrated Analysis
Objective. To explore multiscale integrated analysis methods in identifying key regulators of esophageal cancer (ESCA). Methods. We downloaded the ESCA dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, which contained RNA-seq data, miRNA-seq data, methylation data, and clinical phenotype information. Then, we combined ESCA-related genes from the NCBI-GENE and OMIM databases and RNA-seq dataset from TCGA to analyze differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Meanwhile, differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) and genes with differential methylation levels were identified. The pivot–module pairs were established using the RAID v2.0 database and TRRUST v2 database. Next, the multifactor-regulated functional network was constructed based on the above information. Additionally, gene corresponding targeted drug information was obtained from the DrugBank database. Moreover, we further screened regulators by assessing their diagnostic value and prognostic value, especially the value of distinguishing patients at TNM I stage from normal patients. In addition, the external database from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database was used for validation. Lastly, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to explore the potential biological functions of key regulators. Results. Our study indicated that CXCL8, CYP2C8, and E2F1 had excellent diagnostic and prognostic values, which may be potential regulators of ESCA. At the same time, the good early diagnosis ability of the three regulators also provided new insights for the diagnosis and early treatment of ESCA patients. Conclusion. We develop a multiscale integrated analysis and suggest that CXCL8, CYP2C8, and E2F1 are promising regulators with good diagnostic and prognostic values in ESCA.
Rosuvastatin Improves Cognitive Function of Chronic Hypertensive Rats by Attenuating White Matter Lesions and Beta-Amyloid Deposits
Hypertensive white matter lesion (WML) is one of common causes of vascular cognitive impairment. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of rosuvastatin on cognitive impairment and its underlying mechanisms in chronic hypertensive rats. From the 8th week after establishment of stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSPs), rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg) or saline as a control was administrated once daily for consecutive 12 weeks by gastric gavage. Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze test and novel object recognition test. WML was observed by Luxol fast blue staining. Aβ deposits, Claudin-5, Occludin, and ZO-1 were determined by immunofluorescence. After rosuvastatin treatment, the escape latencies were decreased and the time of crossing the hidden platform was increased in the Morris water maze, compared with the vehicle-treated RHRSP group. In a novel object recognition test, the recognition index in the rosuvastatin-treated RHRSP group was significantly larger than that in the vehicle-treated RHRSP group. Rosuvastatin treatment presented with the effects of lower WML grades, higher expression of tight junction proteins Claudin-5, Occludin, and ZO-1 in the corpus callosum, and less Aβ deposits in the cortex and hippocampus. The data suggested that rosuvastatin improved the cognitive function of chronic hypertensive rats partly by attenuating WML and reducing Aβ burden.
Changes in the Clinical Characteristics of 62 Patients Who Died from Coronavirus Disease 2019
Background. Since the first reports of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the virus has spread to other parts of China and across the world. Although a few studies have assessed the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the changes in clinical characteristics during disease progression remain unclear. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of 62 patients who died from COVID-19 at the Central Hospital of Wuhan between January 26 and February 17, 2020. We compared the clinical features on admission and at the last follow-up before death. Results. Of the 62 patients with COVID-19, 41 (66%) patients were male, and 21 (34%) were female. The median age was 72 years (interquartile range (IQR), 54-88), and 45 (72.5%) patients had preexisting conditions. The median time from symptom onset to the first visit at the clinic was three days, while the median time from symptom onset to death was 18.5 days. During disease progression, the amounts of arterial gases worsened, and liver, renal, and heart dysfunction was observed. Due to the cytokine storm, infection-related biomarkers, including lactic acid, C-reactive protein, and interleukine-6, gradually worsened during hospitalization. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that during hospitalization, many COVID-19 patients experienced multiple organ dysfunction and cytokine storm. The time from symptom onset to death was only 18.5 days, highlighting the disease’s rapid progression. The better understanding of the clinical changes during disease progression might provide further insight into the COVID-19 pathophysiology.
Pharmacists’ Knowledge and Practice of Issues Related to Using Psychotropic Medication in Elderly People in Ethiopia: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study
Purpose. This study is aimed at assessing pharmacists’ knowledge and practice of issue related to usage of psychotropic medications in elderly people, in Gondar town Northwest, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacists working in community, health center, and hospital pharmacies in Gondar town from March 1 to May 30, 2020. A total of 73 medication retail outlets (40 pharmacies and 33 drug stores) were included in this study. Pharmacy personnel’s knowledge and practice were assessed using self-administered validated questionnaires. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between different variables. was used to declare the association. Result. A total of 144 pharmacists were included in the study; the mean age was 30.13 (SD ±5.87), ranging from 20 to 55years. The mean knowledge score was 7.789 (SD ±2.98), and 75 (52.1%) of them had poor knowledge. The mean practice score was (), and 77 (53.5%) of the respondents had poor practice. All participants had not taken on-the-job training about psychotropic medication. Work experience () and personal monthly income () were significantly associated with pharmacists’ knowledge. There was a significant association between work experience and practice level (). Conclusion. The knowledge and practice of pharmacy personnel were low for issues related to the use of psychotropic medication in the elderly. This result indicates the need for training for pharmacists on pharmacotherapy of psychotropic medication.
Immune-Related lncRNA Risk Signatures Predict Survival of IDH Wild-Type and MGMT Promoter Unmethylated Glioblastoma
Introduction. Glioblastoma is the most malignant grade of glioma, and it is also the most common primary tumor in the brain. Immunotherapy is a kind of precise tumor treatment. However, there are limited studies about immune-related lncRNA. This study is aimed at analyzing immune-related lncRNAs in glioblastoma and screening out prognostic factors, providing new potential targets for glioblastoma immunology research. Material and Methods. Gene expression data and clinical data of IDH wild-type with MGMT promoter unmethylated glioblastoma were acquired from the TCGA and CGGA databases. Immune-related lncRNAs were identified with the help of data from the InnateDB database. Immune prognostic factors were recognized by Cox regression analysis. GSEA analysis pursued their potential functions. Results. We found 318 immune-related lncRNAs. Among them, there were 137 immune-related lncRNAs that were upregulated and 181 that were downregulated. 15 prognostic lncRNAs were identified by Cox regression, and a total of 6 molecules were included in the following risk scoring model. GSEA showed that these lncRNAs participated in functions such as protein digestion and absorption and the PPAR signaling pathway. Conclusion. There are limited studies about immune regulation mechanisms of lncRNA in IDH wild-type with MGMT promoter unmethylated glioblastoma. The identified immune-related lncRNAs in glioblastoma might contribute new targets and research directions for immunological molecular studies of glioblastoma.
Magnitude of the Quality Assurance, Quality Control, and Testing in the Shiraz Cohort Heart Study
To determine the conclusive integrity in the Shiraz Cohort Heart Study (SCHS) project, management began quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of the collected data throughout the study end-points. The QA is a focused process that prevents and detects data collection errors and verification of intended requirements in the SCHS. The QC is a subset of QA intended to capture errors in processing data through testing and preventive processes to identify problems, defects, or intended requirements. SCHS involved 10,000 males and females aged 40-70 over a 10-year follow-up period with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Shiraz, Iran. The study measured events and access to preventive care in Shiraz city. The SCHS identified unique barriers to select national study models in developing standardized measures related to variations in ethnicity, religion, cross-cultural considerations, and others. A suggested response to this problem was to develop a mechanism to standardize elements of the questionnaire, study design, and method of administration. This action was based on the geographically normal distribution of the Family Physician Health and Medical Services in Shiraz. Important QA and QC decisions were developed and adopted in the construction of the SCHS and follow-up to ensure conclusive integrity.