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Utilization of Pectin from Okra as Binding Agent in Immediate Release Tablets
Polymeric materials from plants continue to be of interest to pharmaceutical scientists as potential binders in immediate release tablets due to availability, sustainability, and constant supply to feed local pharmaceutical industries. Paracetamol tablet formulations were utilized in investigating the potential binding characteristics of pectin harnessed from various okra genotypes (PC1-PC5) in Ghana. The pectin yields from the different genotypes ranged from 6.12 to 18.84%w/w. The pH of extracted pectin ranged from 6.39 to 6.92, and it had good swelling indices and a low moisture content. Pectin extracted from all genotypes were evaluated as binders (10, 15, and 20%w/v) and compared to tragacanth BP. All formulated tablets (F1-F18) passed the weight uniformity, drug content, hardness, and friability tests. Based on their crushing strength, tablets prepared with pectin from the various genotypes were relatively harder () than tablets prepared with tragacanth BP. Tablets prepared with pectins as binders at 10%w/v and 15%w/v passed the disintegration and dissolution tests with the exception of PC4 at 15%w/v. Incorporation of pectin from all genotypes (excluding PC5) as a binder at concentrations above 15%w/v (F13, F16, F14, and F15) produced tablets which failed the disintegration test and showed poor dissolution profiles. Thus, pectin from these genotypes can be industrially commodified as binders in immediate release tablets using varying concentrations.
Automated Detection of Brain Tumor through Magnetic Resonance Images Using Convolutional Neural Network
Brain tumor is a fatal disease, caused by the growth of abnormal cells in the brain tissues. Therefore, early and accurate detection of this disease can save patient’s life. This paper proposes a novel framework for the detection of brain tumor using magnetic resonance (MR) images. The framework is based on the fully convolutional neural network (FCNN) and transfer learning techniques. The proposed framework has five stages which are preprocessing, skull stripping, CNN-based tumor segmentation, postprocessing, and transfer learning-based brain tumor binary classification. In preprocessing, the MR images are filtered to eliminate the noise and are improve the contrast. For segmentation of brain tumor images, the proposed CNN architecture is used, and for postprocessing, the global threshold technique is utilized to eliminate small nontumor regions that enhanced segmentation results. In classification, GoogleNet model is employed on three publicly available datasets. The experimental results depict that the proposed method is achieved average accuracies of 96.50%, 97.50%, and 98% for segmentation and 96.49%, 97.31%, and 98.79% for classification of brain tumor on BRATS2018, BRATS2019, and BRATS2020 datasets, respectively. The outcomes demonstrate that the proposed framework is effective and efficient that attained high performance on BRATS2020 dataset than the other two datasets. According to the experimentation results, the proposed framework outperforms other recent studies in the literature. In addition, this research will uphold doctors and clinicians for automatic diagnosis of brain tumor disease.
Effect of Dexmedetomidine Combined with Ropivacaine on Cognitive Dysfunction and Inflammatory Response in Patients Undergoing Craniocerebral Surgery
Objective. To study the effects of dexmedetomidine in combination with ropivacaine in patients undergoing craniocerebral surgery and their efficiency on cognitive function and inflammatory response of patients. Methods. 100 patients undergoing craniocerebral surgery in our hospital from November 2018 to September 2020 were randomly selected and divided into a control group and an experimental group by drawing lots, with 50 cases in each group. Patients in the control group received routine anesthesia, while those in the experimental group received 1 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine combined with 0.5% of ropivacaine for anesthesia to compare the anesthesia onset time, analgesic time, postoperative awake time, Social Disability Screening Schedule (SDSS) cognitive function score after waking, visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, Ramsay sedation score, incidence of adverse reactions, postoperative inflammatory factor expression levels, and changes in heart rate, oxygen saturation, and blood pressure at T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4 between the two groups. Results. The anesthesia onset time, SDSS cognitive function score after waking, VAS pain score, Ramsay sedation score, incidence of adverse reactions, and postoperative inflammatory factor expression levels in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group (). The analgesic time and postoperative awake time in the experimental group were significantly longer than those in the control group, with statistical significance (). There were no statistically significant differences in the changes of heart rate, oxygen saturation, and blood pressure at T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4 between the two groups (). Conclusion. Dexmedetomidine combined with ropivacaine has high application value in craniocerebral surgery.
Clinical Effect of Clarithromycin Combined with Tinidazole on Helicobacter pylori-Related Gastritis and Its Influence on COX-2 Expression
Studies have shown that COX-2 expression is upregulated in gastric cancer (GC) as well as in precancerous lesions and in Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation, suggesting that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) may play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. We attempted to investigate the role of clarithromycin with tinidazole on Helicobacter pylori-related gastritis from the aspects of clinical effect and COX-2 expression. From January 2016 to January 2019, 130 patients with Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis were collected and grouped into the observation group (OG) and the control group (CG). Altogether, 80 patients in the OG were treated with clarithromycin with tinidazole, while 50 patients in the CG were treated with amoxicillin with metronidazole. Clinical symptom improvement time, content of COX-2 and B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), content of inflammatory factors interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-4, and C-reactive protein (CRP), expression level of nutritional indicators serum albumin (ALB), realbumin (PA), and transferrin (TF), clearance of Helicobacter pylori, total effective rate, and incidence of adverse reactions were detected. Compared with the CG, the OG had shorter clinical symptom improvement time, lower COX-2 and Bcl-2, lower expression of inflammatory factors IL-1, IL-4, and CRP, higher expression of nutritional indicators ALB, TF, and PA, higher clearance rate of Helicobacter pylori, higher total effective rate, and lower incidence of adverse reactions. Clarithromycin combined with tinidazole can effectively improve the clinical effect of Helicobacter pylori-related gastritis and reduce the expression level of COX-2.
The Expression of miR-23a and miR-146a in the Saliva of Patients with Periodontitis and Its Clinical Significance
Background. This study is aimed at exploring the significance of the expression of miR-23a and miR-146a in patients with periodontitis and their correlations with inflammatory factors. Methods. A total of 120 patients with chronic periodontitis admitted to the department of stomatology in Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital from August 2017 to December 2018 were enrolled as a study group, and 80 healthy volunteers in physical examination during the same period were enrolled as a control group. The expression of miR-23a, miR-146a, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in the saliva of people in the two groups was determined using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. The study group showed significantly higher relative expression of saliva miR-23a and miR-146a than the control group. The area under the curve (AUC) of saliva miR-23a and miR-146a for diagnosing periodontitis was 0.857 and 0.886, respectively. The expression of saliva miR-23a and miR-146a increased with the deterioration of periodontitis in the patients. After basic treatment, the study group showed significantly decreased expression of saliva miR-23a and miR-146a. Patients in the study group showed significantly higher levels of saliva IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17 than those in the control group, and their saliva miR-23a and miR-146a were positively correlated with their saliva IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17, respectively. Conclusion. Saliva miR-23a and miR-146a can be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis and assessment of periodontitis, and they may have regulatory relationships with IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17.
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Schistosoma mansoni and Associated Factors among Fishermen at Lake Tana, Northwest Ethiopia
Background. Intestinal parasites and Schistosoma mansoni infections adversely affect the health of humans in the world especially in sub-Saharan African countries including Ethiopia. Fishermen who spend most of their time in water bodies are supposed to be at high risk of schistosomiasis and other water-born parasites. However, the magnitude of these parasitic infections and their determinant factors are not well addressed. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Lake Tana among 388 fishermen from March to May 2021. Questionnaire data was collected through face to face interview. Stool sample from each participant was processed by the Kato-Katz and spontaneous tube sedimentation techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 26. Results. One hundred sixty four (42.3%) and 88 (22.7%) participants were infected by intestinal parasites and Schistosoma mansoni, respectively. One hundred twenty two (31.4%) and 42 (10.8%) participants were infected by soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Attending only primary school (, ) or being illiterate (, ) and not washing hands before meal (, ) were significantly associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Illiterate educational status (, ), fishing by bargee (, ), fishing ≥4 days per week (, ), swimming habit (, ), and participation in irrigation (, ) predispose fishermen to S. mansoni infection. Conclusion. Intestinal parasites and S. mansoni infections are highly prevalent among fishermen at Lake Tana basin. Low education level and frequent water contact predispose fishermen for intestinal parasites and S. mansoni. Therefore, health education to fishermen on intestinal parasites and S. mansoni infection and regular deworming should be advocated.