Withania frutescens. L Extract: Phytochemical Characterization and Acute and Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity Studies in MiceRead the full article
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Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging as a Prognostic Marker in Osteosarcoma Patients with Preoperative Chemotherapy
Background. The accurate prediction of prognosis is key to prompt therapy adjustment. The purpose of our study was to investigate the efficacy of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in predicting progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in osteosarcoma patients with preoperative chemotherapy. Methods. Thirty patients who underwent DKI before and after chemotherapy, followed by tumor resection, were retrospectively enrolled. The patients were grouped into good responders (GRs) and poor responders (PRs). The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test were used for survival analysis. The association between the DKI parameters and OS and PFS was performed by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results. Significantly worse OS and PFS were associated with a lower mean diffusivity (MD) after chemotherapy (HR, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.5-23.1; and HR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.2-10.1: , respectively) and a higher mean kurtosis (MK) after chemotherapy (HR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9; and HR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8; , respectively). Likewise, shorter OS and PFS were also significantly associated with a change rate in MD (CR MD) of less than 13.53% (HR, 8.6; 95% CI, 1.8-41.8; and HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.0-8.2; , respectively). Compared to GRs, PRs had an approximately 9- and 4-fold increased risk of death (HR, 9.4; 95% CI, 1.2-75; ) and progression (HR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.2-15; ), respectively. Conclusions. DKI has a potential to be a prognostic tool in osteosarcoma. Low MK and high MD after chemotherapy or high CR MD indicates favorite outcome, while prospective studies with large sample sizes are warranted.
Prognostic Role of MicroRNA 222 in Patients with Glioma: A Meta-analysis
Background. Several studies have focused on the prognostic role of microRNA 222 in glioma. But different conclusions were drawn by these studies. We aimed to systematically evaluate the role of microRNA 222 in glioma by conducting a meta-analysis. Methods. A systematic literature search until January 2020 was conducted in Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. The general characteristics and relevant data of nine articles were extracted. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to evaluate the prognostic role of microRNA 222 in glioma. The primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results. Nine articles (11 data sets) with 1564 patients were included. We systematically evaluated the role of microRNA 222 for OS and DFS in glioma patients (HR for ; 95% CI, 1.31-2.26; ; HR for ; 95% CI, 0.86-1.22; ). Subgroup analyses were performed according to the sources of patients, the types of the samples, the stages of the tumors, the methods for detecting the microRNA 222, and the sample size. No significant publication bias was found. Conclusion. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that a high expression of microRNA 222 was related to worse overall survival in glioma patients. However, given the limited study number, more high-quality studies are warranted in the future.
Aberrant Methylation and Differential Expression of SLC2A1, TNS4, GAPDH, ATP8A2, and CASZ1 Are Associated with the Prognosis of Lung Adenocarcinoma
Lung cancer is one of the leading triggers for cancer death worldwide. In this study, the relationship of the aberrantly methylated and differentially expressed genes in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) with cancer prognosis was investigated, and 5 feature genes were identified eventually. Specifically, we firstly downloaded the LUAD-related mRNA expression profile (including 57 normal tissue samples and 464 LUAD tissue samples) and Methy450 expression data (including 32 normal tissue samples and 373 LUAD tissue samples) from the TCGA database. The package “limma” was used to screen differentially expressed genes and aberrantly methylated genes, which were intersected for identifying the hypermethylated downregulated genes (DGs Hyper) and the hypomethylated upregulated genes (UGs Hypo). GO annotation and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were further performed, and it was found that these DGs Hyper and UGs Hypo were predominantly activated in the biological processes and signaling pathways such as the regulation of vasculature development, DNA-binding transcription activator activity, and Ras signaling pathway, indicating that these genes play a vital role in the initiation and progression of LUAD. Additionally, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were conducted to find the genes significantly associated with LUAD prognosis. Five genes including SLC2A1, TNS4, GAPDH, ATP8A2, and CASZ1 were identified, with the former three highly expressed and the latter two poorly expressed in LUAD, indicating poor prognosis of LUAD patients as judged by survival analysis.
Both Gut Microbiota and Differentially Expressed Proteins Are Relevant to the Development of Obesity
Although the role of the gut microbiota in obesity has recently received considerable attention, the exact mechanism is unclear. This study was aimed at investigating the profiles of bacterial communities in fecal samples and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the peripheral blood in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and standard diet (SD) and at providing new insights into the pathogenesis of obesity. The profiles of bacterial communities in fecal samples and DEPs in the peripheral blood were characterized in mice fed HFD and SD, respectively. The levels of 3 DEPs increased in HFD mice. The alpha diversity was significantly lower after 4 and 12 weeks in HFD mice. The beta diversity was higher after 4, 8, and 12 weeks in HFD mice. A total of 16 gut bacterial clades were significantly different with the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) score higher than 4 over time. The relative abundance levels of Proteobacteria and Deferribacteres were higher, while those of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were lower in HFD mice at the phylum level. The relative abundance of Desulfovibrionaceae and Rikenellaceae increased in HFD mice at the family level. The relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes_S24-7_group and Lachnospiraceae was lower in HFD mice. The gut microbiota had a significant correlation with serum lipid indexes and expression of DEPs at the phylum and family levels. The changes in the gut microbiota of HFD mice and their associations with the levels of inflammatory proteins could be one of the major etiological mechanisms underlying obesity.
Metallo-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Acinetobacter spp. from Clinical Isolates at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Ghana
Metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Acinetobacter spp. is a major challenge for therapeutic treatment of nosocomial infections. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of MBL-producing Acinetobacter spp. among 87 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, between August 2014 and July 2015. Acinetobacter spp. was identified by standard bacteriological method, and resistance to different antibiotics was assessed with the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. Meropenem-resistant Acinetobacter isolates were screened for enzyme activity using the modified Hodge test (MHT) and combined disc test (CDT). Additionally, multiplex PCR was used to determine MBL genes presence (blaVIM,blaIMP, and blaNDM). All Acinetobacter isolates showed high resistance to cefotaxime (90.8%), ceftazidime (75.9%), cotrimoxazole (70.1%), ciprofloxacin (64.4%), gentamicin (72.4%), levofloxacin (67.8%), and meropenem (59.8%). A total of 54 (62.1%) of Acinetobacter isolates were multidrug-resistant. Out of 52 (59.8%) meropenem-resistant Acinetobacter, 3 (5.8%) were carbapenemase producers by MHT, whilst, 23 (44.2%) were CDT positive. There was no significant difference between the resistance pattern of amikacin, ceftazidime, cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and meropenem amongst CDT-positive and CDT-negative isolates (). A total of 7/87 (8.1%) CDT-positive Acinetobacter isolates harboured blaNDM; of these, 4 (57.1%) were from wound swabs, urine () (28.6%), and ear swab () (14.3%). The study revealed that less than 9% of Acinetobacter spp. contained blaNDM encoding genes. Strict antibiotics usage plan and infection control measures are required to prevent the spread of these resistance genes.
High-Intensity Interval Training versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training on Health Outcomes for Children and Adolescents: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is considered as an established risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in children and adolescents remained uncertain. Electronic databases of the PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane library were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated the role of HIIT versus MICT for children and adolescents throughout December 2019. Sixteen RCTs involving a total of 543 children were selected for final meta-analysis. HIIT versus MICT showed high peak VO2 (weighted mean differences (WMD): 2.68; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.81 to 3.55; ), and no evidence of heterogeneity and publication bias was detected. However, there were no significant differences detected between HIIT and MICT on the levels of peak heart rate (HRmax), fat mass, free fat mass, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, glycemia, insulinemia, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, and leptinemia. The findings of this study revealed that HIIT versus MICT showed a significant improvement in peak VO2 in children and adolescents. Further large-scale RCTs should be conducted to compare the long-term effects of HIIT versus MICT in children and adolescents.