GEE-TGDR: A Longitudinal Feature Selection Algorithm and Its Application to lncRNA Expression Profiles for Psoriasis Patients Treated with Immune TherapiesRead the full article
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Analysis of Development Mechanism of Giant Cell Arteritis in Nude Mouse Model through Color Duplex Sonography and Computerized Tomography Nanocontrast Agent
To explore the application value of color duplex sonography and enhanced computerized tomography (CT) inspection based on a nanocontrast agent in diagnosis and pathogenesis in giant cell arteritis (GCA), the GCA nude mouse model was constructed. In this study, 40 healthy male BalB/c nude mice aged 6-8 weeks were randomly divided into a control group (no model) and an experimental group (model), with 20 mice in each group, and the temporal artery tissue of GCA patients diagnosed as positive by temporal artery biopsy was implanted into nude mice to construct a GCA nude mouse model. Abdominal aortic biopsy and immunohistochemistry were used to verify the success of the GCA nude mouse model. All nude mice were subjected to color duplex sonography and enhanced CT examination based on a nanocontrast agent. At the same time, the basic indicators such as body weight, temperature, white blood cell (WBC), lymphocytes (LYM), hemoglobin (HGB), and platelet (PLT) were measured, and the protein expression levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the temporal artery wall of the nude mice in the experimental group thickened and the lumen was significantly narrowed, indicating that the cell arteritis model of nude mice was successfully constructed; ultrasound examination showed that the right superficial temporal artery vascular cavity narrowed, the blood flow signal changed like a filling defect around the periphery, and there was a low echo halo. CT examination showed that the left superficial temporal artery narrowed, and the inner diameter of the narrow segment of blood vessels changed like a bead. The body weight of nude mice in the experimental group decreased significantly after the modeling was completed (); after modeling, the body temperature of the nude mice in the experimental group increased significantly (); LYM and HGB values of nude mice in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group (); the content of IL-6, STAT3, IL-6, and STAT3 proteins in the arterial tissue of nude mice in the experimental group was lower than that of the control group (), indicating that color duplex sonography and CT contrast agent technology can be used in the diagnosis and development mechanism research of GC.
Cardiac Phase Space Analysis: Assessing Coronary Artery Disease Utilizing Artificial Intelligence
The bridge of artificial intelligence to cardiovascular medicine has opened up new avenues for novel diagnostics that may significantly enhance the cardiology care pathway. Cardiac phase space analysis is a noninvasive diagnostic platform that combines advanced disciplines of mathematics and physics with machine learning. Thoracic orthogonal voltage gradient (OVG) signals from an individual are evaluated by cardiac phase space analysis to quantify physiological and mathematical features associated with coronary stenosis. The analysis is performed at the point of care without the need for a change in physiologic status or radiation. This review will highlight some of the scientific principles behind the technology, provide a description of the system and device, and discuss the study procedure, clinical data, and potential future applications.
Higher Frequency of Undetected Acute Coronary Syndrome in Elderly Patients with Chest Pain Who Visited the Emergency Department: A Large-Cohort Retrospective Study
Background. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a critical disease encountered in the emergency department (ED). Despite the development of diagnostic tools, it may be difficult to diagnose ACS because of atypical symptoms and equivocal test results. We investigated the difference in the rates of revisit and undetected ACS between adult and elderly patients who visited the ED with chest pain. Method. Data from 11,323 patients who visited the ED with chest pain at university hospitals in Korea were retrospectively analyzed. The cohort was categorized into two age groups: the adult (30–64 years) and elderly (>65 years). Baseline characteristic data (age, sex, vital signs, triage category, etc.) were obtained. We selected patients who revisited the ED within 30 d and investigated whether ACS was diagnosed. Result. The revisit rate was higher in the elderly (12%) than in the adult group (8.3%). The rate of undetected ACS among the revisited patients was 2.91% (18/7,186) in adults and 6.08% (16/1,998) in elderly patients. Conclusion. Elderly patients with chest pain had an increased rate of ED revisits and undetected ACS than adult patients. We recommend that old patients should be hospitalized to observe the progression of cardiac complaints or receive short-term follow-up.
Inhibitory Effect of Multimodal Nanoassemblies against Glycative and Oxidative Stress in Cancer and Glycation Animal Models
In recent years, there has been a progress in the study of glycation reaction which is one the possible reason for multiple metabolic disorders. Glycation is a nonenzymatic reaction between nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins resulting into the formation of early glycation products that may further lead to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The precipitation of AGEs in various cells, tissues, and organs is one of the factors for the initiation and progression of various metabolic derangements including the cancer. The AGE interaction with its receptor “RAGE” activates the inflammatory pathway; yet, the downregulation of RAGE and its role in these pathways are not clear. We explore the effect of anticancer novel nanoassemblies on AGEs to determine its role in the regulation of the expression of RAGE, NFƙB, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. This paper is based on the in vivo and in vitro study in glycation and lung cancer model systems. Upon the treatment of nanoassemblies in both the model systems, we observed a protective effect of nanoassemblies over the inhibition of glycative and oxidative stress via mRNA expression analysis. The mRNA expression results corroborated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS), carboxy-methyl-lysine (CML), and fluorescence studies. In this study, we found that the presence of common factors for glycation and lung cancer is oxidative and glycative stress. This oxidation and glycation might be responsible for the initiation of inflammation which may further lead to uncontrolled growth of cells leading to cancer. This can be a strong association between lung cancer and glycation reaction. The intervention of the anticancer and antiglycation effects of multimodal nanoassemblies throughout the study promises a new pathway for cancer research.
Nurses’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice in Relation to Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting: A Systematic Review
Aim. To describe and synthesize aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting and to explore associated barriers from a nurse perspective. Methods. A systematic review was conducted. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge from January 2010 to October 2020 were searched. Original observational studies that were written in English and which focused on nurses’ knowledge, attitudes, practice, and perceived barriers regarding pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting in various healthcare settings were included. Results. Twenty-three studies published in English from 2010 to 2020 were retrieved during the search process. Overall, in the knowledge domain, the median percentages of nurses who were aware of the definitions of ADRs were 74.1%, while only 26.3% were aware of the adverse drug reaction reporting form. In the attitude domain, 84.6% of nurses believed ADR reporting to be important for patient/medicine safety and 37.1% had a fear of legal liability following ADR reporting. Although 67.1% of nurses encountered ADRs during their professional life, only 21.2% had a history of ADR reporting. In addition, lack of knowledge/training (median: 47.1%) was identified as the most common barrier in ADR reporting from a nursing viewpoint. Conclusion. Despite positive nurse attitudes, knowledge and practice in relation to pharmacovigilance activities and ADR reporting did not occur regularly or often. Improving nurses’ knowledge through in-service training and degree-level education and addressing the main barriers of ADR reporting may help to achieve an improved level of reporting.
Relaxant Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Excoecaria grahamii (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves on Uterine Horn Contractility in Wistar Rats
In uterine smooth muscle, the effects of Excoecaria grahamii are not yet documented. To fill this gap, we investigated the pharmacological effect of Excoecaria grahamii on the contraction of the rat isolated uterine horns. The isolated segments were exposed to different concentrations of the aqueous extract of Excoecaria grahamii leaves and pharmacological drugs. The results showed that Excoecaria grahamii aqueous extract decreased the amplitude and frequency by concentration-related manner. values were 2.4 and 2.6, respectively, for amplitude and frequency. Our study revealed that the extract did not act through histamine H2-receptors or the nitric oxide pathway. It also inhibited uterine contractions induced by oxytocin and potassium chloride (KCl). These data suggest that Excoecaria grahamii active compound can be used for calming uterine contractions. The action of Excoecaria grahamii showed that it can be useful to fight against diseases which caused uterotonic effects. It can be useful to prevent preterm birth and pains caused by menstruations but further investigation is needed to clarify the mechanism action.