Nontyphoidal Salmonella and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Diarrheic Patients Attending Private Hospitals in Addis Ababa, EthiopiaRead the full article
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Identification of Vital Hub Genes and Potential Molecular Pathways of Dermatomyositis by Bioinformatics Analysis
Dermatomyositis is an autoimmune disease characterized by severe symmetrical muscle dysfunction and pain. This study was aimed at discovering vital hub genes and potential molecular pathways of DM through bioinformatics analysis, which contributes to identifying potential diagnostic or therapeutic biomarkers and targets. In this study, a total of 915 DEGs in DM samples including 167 upregulated genes and 748 downregulated genes were screened out by the limma package based on the GSE142807 dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Furthermore, the results of Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these downregulated genes were highly associated with the immune-related biological processes and pathways. Therefore, 41 genes closely related to DM were extracted for further study based on the subcluster analysis through the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) software plugin in Cytoscape. Ultimately, 10 hub genes (including ISG15, DDX58, IFIT3, CXCL10, and STAT1) were identified as the potential candidate biomarkers and targets. Besides, we found that the identified hub genes directly or indirectly communicated with each other via molecular signaling pathways on the protein and transcription level. In general, under the guidance of bioinformatics analysis, 10 vital hub genes and molecular mechanisms in DM were identified and the expression of proinflammatory factors and interferon family proteins and genes showed high association with DM, which might help provide a theoretical foundation for the development of point-to-point targeted therapy in the future treatment of DM.
Evaluation of Residual Monomers Eluted from Pediatric Dental Restorative Materials
Unreacted monomers eluted from resin-based restorative materials have been considered a reason of local and systemic adverse reactions. This study was designed to determine the effect of finishing and polishing procedures on the elution of Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA, and HEMA monomers from compomer and bulk-fill composite resins. Bulk-fill composite (3M ESPE GmbH, Seefeld, Germany) and compomer (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany) specimens with diameters were prepared. The specimens were randomly divided into two groups, and finishing-polishing procedures were applied only to the experimental groups. Release of residual monomers was analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for comparisons. Finishing and polishing procedures had a significant effect on reducing the quantity of UDMA release in the Filtek™ Bulk Fill composite and Bis-GMA, HEMA, and TEGDMA in the Dyract XP compomer (). The restorative materials investigated here are not chemically stable after polymerization, and concentrations of eluted monomers may reach critical toxicity levels even after one restoration placement. Finishing and polishing procedures are mandatory to reduce residual monomers.
Effects of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists on Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 52-Week Clinical Study
Introduction. Hypoglycemic drugs affect the bone quality and the risk of fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to investigate the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and insulin on bone mineral density (BMD) in T2DM. Methods. In this single-blinded study, a total of 65 patients with T2DM were randomly assigned into four groups for 52 weeks: the exenatide group (), dulaglutide group (), insulin glargine group (), and placebo (). General clinical data were collected, and BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Compared with baseline, the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased significantly in the exenatide ( vs. , ), dulaglutide ( vs. , ), and insulin glargine ( vs. , ) groups after treatment. In the exenatide group, the BMD of the total hip increased. In the dulaglutide group, only the BMD of the femoral neck decreased (), but the magnitude of decrease was less than that in the placebo group; the BMD of L1-L4, femoral neck, and total hip decreased significantly () in the placebo group, while in the insulin glargine group, the BMD of L2, L4, and L1-4 increased (). Compared with the placebo group, the BMD of the femoral neck and total hip in the exenatide group and the insulin glargine group were increased significantly (); compared with the exenatide group, the BMD of L4 in the insulin glargine group was also increased (). Conclusions. Compared with the placebo, GLP-1RAs demonstrated an increase of BMD at multiple sites of the body after treatment, which may not exacerbate the consequences of bone fragility. Therefore, GLP-1RAs might be considered for patients with T2DM. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01648582.
Anisakis pegreffii Extract Induces Airway Inflammation with Airway Remodeling in a Murine Model System
Exposure of the respiratory system to the Anisakis pegreffii L3 crude extract (AE) induces airway inflammation; however, the mechanism underlying this inflammatory response remains unknown. AE contains allergens that promote allergic inflammation; exposure to AE may potentially lead to asthma. In this study, we aimed to establish a murine model to assess the effects of AE on characteristic features of chronic asthma, including airway hypersensitivity (AHR), airway inflammation, and airway remodeling. Mice were sensitized for five consecutive days each week for 4 weeks. AHR, lung inflammation, and airway remodeling were evaluated 24 h after the last exposure. Lung inflammation and airway remodeling were assessed from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). To confirm the immune response in the lungs, changes in gene expression in the lung tissue were assessed with reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The levels of IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a in blood and cytokine levels in the BALF, splenocyte, and lung lymph node (LLN) culture supernatant were measured with ELISA. An increase in AHR was prominently observed in AE-exposed mice. Epithelial proliferation and infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed in the BALF and lung tissue sections. Collagen deposition was detected in lung tissues. AE exposure increased IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 expression in the lung, as well as the levels of antibodies specific to AE. IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were upregulated only in LLN. These findings indicate that an increase in IL-4+ CD4+ T cells in the LLN and splenocyte resulted in increased Th2 response to AE exposure. Exposure of the respiratory system to AE resulted in an increased allergen-induced Th2 inflammatory response and AHR through accumulation of inflammatory and IL-4+ CD4+ T cells and collagen deposition. It was confirmed that A. pegreffii plays an essential role in causing asthma in mouse models and has the potential to cause similar effects in humans.
The Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Respiratory Functions, and the Quality of Life, following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Randomised Controlled Study
Objective. Examining the effects of a pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program applied to patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery with open heart technique on respiratory functions, functional capacity, and quality of life (QoL). Design. This randomised controlled study applied the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement. Methods. The study was conducted with two groups: the intervention group () and the control group (). The control group received standard care after coronary artery bypass grafting. On the contrary, the experimental group participated in a PR program created by the researchers in addition to standard care. After coronary artery bypass grafting, the respiratory functions (on the 4th day of clinical care) and QoL (at the 6th week) of both groups were evaluated. The primary outcome measure was the respiratory function (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC). The secondary outcome measure of this study was the QoL. Results. When the average pulmonary function test values of the patients were examined, the mean FVC and FEV1 values of the patients in the intervention group on the 4th day of clinical care were significantly higher with a medium level size effect than the control group (; effect size ; ; effect size , respectively). At the postoperative 6th week measurement of QoL, a decrease was observed in all subdimensions of the scale, albeit less in the intervention group (). There was a decrease in both the mental and physical component summary of QoL (). Conclusion. The results of this study revealed that pulmonary rehabilitation applied to patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft recover their functional capacity faster.
Effects of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Nerve Repair and Expressions of GFAP and GDNF in Rats with Neuropathic Pain
Objective. To study the effect of pulsed radio frequency (PRF) on nerve repair and the expression of GFAP and GDNF in rats with neuropathic pain. Methods. Thirty SPF healthy SD rats were randomly divided into control group (Group C), PSNL group (partial ligation of sciatic nerve) + sham group (Group PS), and PSNL group (partial ligation of sciatic nerve) + PRF group (Group PR), with 10 rats in each group. In group C, the right sciatic nerve was exposed without ligation. In the PS group, the model of neuropathic pain was established by partial ligation of sciatic nerve. The mice in the PR group were treated with PRF after establishing the neuropathic pain model. The general behavior of rats during the treatment was observed. The mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were measured before operation and 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after operation. The content of inflammatory factors in nerve tissue was detected by ELISA. The pathological condition of nerve tissue was observed by HE. The gene and protein changes of GFAP and GDNF in nerve tissue were determined by QRT PCR and Western blot. Results. Rats in the control group were free to move and in good condition. In the PS group, there were different degrees of claudication, weakness of the lower limbs, lateral toe valgus, nerve injury, and other behavioral changes. After the pulsed radiofrequency in the PR group, the above symptoms decreased gradually with the prolongation of the treatment time. The mechanical pain sensitivity and thermal allodynia of the PS group were reduced after the operation. The mechanical pain sensitivity and thermal pain sensitivity of the PR group gradually increased with the prolongation of the treatment time, and the 14 days were basically close to the control group. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in ELISA were significantly higher in the PS group than in the control group, and the content in the PR group was gradually reduced, which was close to the control group. HE staining showed that the sciatic nerve fibers disappeared, and the formation of nerve cavities was obvious in the 14-day PS group. The nerve fibers were found in the sciatic tissue of the PR group, and there was no obvious hemorrhagic edema and cell deformation. The expression of GFAP mRNA in the PS group was significantly higher than that in the control group and the PR group (), and the expression of GDNF was opposite (). The results of western blot showed that the expression of GFAP protein in the 14-day PS group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The expression of the PR group decreased compared with the control group, and the expression of GDNF was opposite (). Conclusion. Pulsed radiofrequency ablation can promote neurological repair, promote GDNF, and reduce the expression of GFAP in rats with neuropathic pain.