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Segmentation of Breast Masses in Mammogram Image Using Multilevel Multiobjective Electromagnetism-Like Optimization Algorithm
In recent times, breast mass is the most diagnostic sign for early detection of breast cancer, where the precise segmentation of masses is important to reduce the mortality rate. This research proposes a new multiobjective optimization technique for segmenting the breast masses from the mammographic image. The proposed model includes three phases such as image collection, image denoising, and segmentation. Initially, the mammographic images are collected from two benchmark datasets like Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) and Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS). Next, image normalization and Contrast-Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) techniques are employed for enhancing the visual capability and contrast of the mammographic images. After image denoising, electromagnetism-like (EML) optimization technique is used for segmenting the noncancer and cancer portions from the mammogram image. The proposed EML technique includes the advantages like enhanced robustness to hold the image details and adaptive to local context. Lastly, template matching is carried out after segmentation to detect the cancer regions, and then, the effectiveness of the proposed model is analysed in light of Jaccard coefficient, dice coefficient, specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy. Hence, the proposed model averagely achieved 92.3% of sensitivity, 99.21% of specificity, and 98.68% of accuracy on DDSM dataset, and the proposed model averagely achieved 92.11% of sensitivity, 99.45% of specificity, and 98.93% of accuracy on MIAS dataset.
Effects of Hypoxic Environment on Periodontal Tissue through the ROS/TXNIP/NLRP3 Inflammasome Pathway
There is low evidence for the possible association between obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and periodontitis, necessitating further research. This study was aimed at investigating this association. For the in vitro study, 8-day-old Wistar rats were divided into the unilateral nasal obstruction group (UNO) and the sham surgery group (SHAM). Rats in the former group were subjected to UNO by cauterization of the external nostril at the age of 8 days. Immunofluorescence analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blot were performed to assess the expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-associated factors, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Throughout the experimental period, the weights of rats in the two groups were similar. The mRNA and protein expression of TXNIP and IL-1β was significantly higher in the UNO than in the SHAM groups. Compared with SHAM, NLRP3 inflammasome-associated factors were activated in the UNO group. For the in vitro study, a cellular hypoxia model was established by treating human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs) with cobalt chloride. The studies showed that hypoxia can induce an excessive production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HPDLCs and induce abnormal expression of TNXIP, NLRP3 inflammasome-related factors, and IL-1β. More importantly, N-acetylcysteine induced reduction of ROS in HPDLCs, downregulated TXNIP expression, inhibited the expression and aggregation of NLRP3 inflammasome-related factors, and abrogated the inflammatory response to hypoxia. In conclusion, hypoxia-induced ROS can activate the TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway in response to oxidative stress, resulting in the increased expression of inflammatory factors in HPDLCs. Our findings provide evidence for the mechanism underlying the possible association between OSAHS and periodontal disease.
Hematological Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Clinically Confirmed Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Background and Aims. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder of lipid metabolism which leads to premature cardiovascular diseases. In patients with FH, blood inflammatory markers may be disrupted; however, its extent is unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the NLR (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio), PLR (platelet count to lymphocyte count ratio), MPV (mean platelet volume), RPR (red blood cell distribution width to platelet count ratio), WBC (white blood cell), and PDW (platelet distribution width and platelet count). Methods. The patients were selected from laboratories due to high cholesterol level and who had history of premature cardiovascular disease. The Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) criteria are used for the detection of FH. Controls had a history of hyperlipidemia, and both groups could be on pharmacotherapy or not. All the biochemical markers were evaluated using appreciate methods. Statistical analysis was done using STATA 14. Results. The study group consisted of 1074 patients with FH and 473 control cases. Of the CBC inflammatory markers, only PLR was significantly () higher in FH patients () compared to non-FH (). In FH patients, the PLR was significantly higher in probable/definite FH group () compared to possible FH () (). Linear regression analysis showed that only RLR was independently associated with total cholesterol (, ). Conclusions. Our results may show the importance of high cholesterol on platelet activity and highlight the use of lipid lowering drugs in patients with hyperlipidemia.
Immunological Risk Assessment of Xenogeneic Dural Patch by Comparing with Raw Material via GTKO Mice
Objective. In this study, α-Gal epitope-deficient (GGTA1 knockout (GTKO)) mice were used to assess the immunological risks of xenogeneic dural patch by comparing with raw material. Methods. The xenogeneic dural patch (T2) was prepared from bovine pericardium (T1, raw material) through decellularization and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) coating. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the collagen fibers and surface microstructural changes in the T1 and T2 samples. The remnant α-Gal epitopes and DNA of implants were detected by standardized method. T1 and T2 were implanted subcutaneously into GTKO mice for 4 and 12 weeks, respectively, and the negative control group (Con) was only performed sham operation. The total serum antibody, anti-Gal antibody, and splenic lymphocyte subtypes were analyzed by ELISA or flow cytometry, and histological analysis of implant-tissue was performed by H&E and Masson stain. Results. TEM and Sirius red staining showed that the collagen fibers in the dural patch were closely arranged, and SEM showed that a loose three-dimensional structure was successfully constructed on the surface of the dural patch after CMCS coating. The remnant DNA in T2 was (dry weight), and clearance of α-Gal epitope was up to 99.83% compared to T1. The significant increases in serum total IgM, anti-Gal IgG, and anti-Gal IgM at 4 weeks and the significant changes in anti-Gal IgG and spleen lymphocyte at 12 weeks were observed in the T1 group, but no significant change was observed in the T2 group, compared to the control group. Histological semiquantitative analysis showed severe cell and tissue responses at 4 weeks and a moderate response at 12 weeks in the T1 group, while a moderate response at 4 weeks and a slight response at 12 weeks in the T2 group. Conclusions. The results demonstrated that the xenogeneic dural patch has a lower and acceptable immunological risk compared to the raw material and control, respectively. On the other hand, it was suggested that GTKO mice are useful experimental model for immunological risk assessment of animal tissue-derived biomaterials.
Sex Moderated Mediation of the Musculoskeletal Fitness in Relationship between High-Intensive Interval Training Performing during Physical Education Classes and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Healthy Boys and Girls
High-intensive interval training (HIIT) is indicated as a means of improving cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and musculoskeletal fitness (MSF). The relationship between CRF and MSF was examined too. Little is known about gaining CRF from HIIT independence of MSF in adolescents. Therefore, this study is aimed at investigating whether MSF mediated the relationship between HIIT and CRF and whether sex moderate this relation. The study sample included 122 individuals (45 boys, 77 girls) years of secondary school age. Participants were assigned to the HIIT intervention or control groups. The intervention lasted 14 minutes during one physical education lesson per week for ten weeks. Outcome and potential mediator were residual changes calculated from pre- and postintervention results of MSF components: handgrip (HG), sit-ups (ABS), sit-and-reach (FL), vertical jump (VJ), and Harvard step-test representing cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). MSF index (MSFI) was calculated as a construct, agglomerating all MSF, and tested its usefulness. HIIT significantly impacted CRF in boys and girls (, ; , , respectively). The impact of the HIIT program on the ABS and FL was observed only in girls. The moderation effect of sex was confirmed. Significant effect of HIIT on CRF decreased () and was no significant after including FL (, )—complete mediation, but no ABS (, )—partial mediation. CRF was mediated by changes in ABS (, ) and FL (4.18, ). MSFI was not mediating; its usefulness was limited. HIIT is an effective tool in the development of CRF in both sexes. MSF played a limited role in the relationship between HIIT and CRF. It suggested different mechanisms in both sexes: girls who performed better to the HIIT had better values of FL and ABS, but not boys. HIIT intervention involved modifications in ABS or FL, which also influenced the increase of CRF.
Potent In Vitro Phosphodiesterase 1 Inhibition of Flavone Isolated from Pistacia integerrima Galls
To prospect an isozyme-specific, effective inhibitor against the physiologically-crucial enzyme phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1), phytochemicals from Pistacia integerrima galls were screened. The chloroform fraction of gall extract was subjected to column chromatographic which led to the isolation of compound 1, elucidated to be 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (a flavone). In vitro and in silico PDE1 inhibitory activity of the compound 1 was investigated. EDTA, a known PDE1 inhibitor, was used as the reference. The flavone exhibited in vitro attenuation towards snake venom PDE1. IC50 response was superior to the standard chelator. An in silico molecular docking study was carried out using 3D structure of PDE1 to study the binding interactions of compound 1. The docking study predicted that flavone had a lower binding affinity (-7.6 kcal/mol) and total energy (-95 kcal/mol) score compared to EDTA. The minimal energy associated with the ligand-protein complex implied that isolated compound 1 can serve as a therapeutic agent against PDE1 enzyme-provoked ailments like asthma, hypertension, schizophrenia, and erectile dysfunction.