The Development of Three-DNA Methylation Signature as a Novel Prognostic Biomarker in Patients with Colorectal CancerRead the full article
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Effects of Dietary Protein Levels on Bamei Pig Intestinal Colony Compositional Traits
Diets containing different crude protein levels (16%, 14%, and 12%) were created to feed Bamei pigs in order to study the effect of these compositions on intestinal colonies. Therefore, 27 healthy Bamei pigs of similar weight () were selected and randomly divided into three groups for microbial diversity analysis. The results of this study show that microbial diversities and abundances in Bamei pig jejunum and caecum samples after feeding with different dietary protein levels were significantly different. Dietary crude protein level exerted no significant effect on the Shannon index for cecum microbes in these pigs, while Simpson, ACE, and Chao1 indices for group I were all significantly higher than those of either the control group or group II (). Indeed, data show that microbial diversities and abundances in the 14% protein level group were higher than those in either the 16% or 12% groups. Dominant bacteria present in jejunum and cecum samples given low-protein diets were members of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Data show that as dietary crude protein level decreases, representatives of the microbial flora genus Lactobacillus in jejunum and cecum samples gradually increases. Values for the KEGG functional prediction of microbial flora at different dietary protein levels also show that genes of jejunum and cecum microorganisms were mainly enriched in the “metabolism” pathway and indicate that low protein diets increase intestinal metabolic activity. Therefore, we recommend that Bamei pig dietary protein levels are reduced 2% from their existing level of 16% crude protein. We also suggest that essential synthetic amino acids (AA) are added to optimize this ideal protein model as this will increase intestinal flora diversity in these pigs and enhance health. These changes will have a positive effect in promoting the healthy growth of Bamei pigs.
Prognostic Value of Long Noncoding RNA SNHG12 in Various Carcinomas: A Meta-Analysis
Background. Numerous recent studies suggested that overexpression of the long noncoding RNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 12 (SNHG12) exhibited prooncogenic activity in multiple cancers. However, results regarding the prognostic value of SNHG12 in cancers still remained controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis complemented with bioinformatics analysis to elucidate the clinical significance of SNHG12 in cancer patients. Methods. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and Weipu databases were searched for eligible studies until July 2020. Additionally, bioinformatics analysis was applied to verify the results of meta-analysis. Results. Twenty-three related studies consisting of 1389 cancer patients were enrolled in the current meta-analysis. Elevated SNHG12 expression was found to be significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS) (; 95% CI: 1.53-2.13; ) and disease-free survival (DFS) (; 95% CI: 1.12-1.76; ) in multiple cancers, which were also verified by the results of bioinformatics analysis. Moreover, overexpression of SNHG12 was also related to clinicopathological characteristics including LNM, distant metastasis, high clinical stage, large tumor size, and poor tumor differentiation in diverse types of cancers. Conclusion. The present findings indicated that SNHG12 might act as a novel biomarker for diagnosis or prognosis in human cancers.
A Novel Missense Variant of TP63 Heterozygously Present in Split-Hand/Foot Malformation
Background. Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a severe congenital disability mainly characterized by the absence or hypoplasia of the central ray of the hand/foot. To date, several candidate genes associated with SHFM have been identified, including TP63, DLX5, DLX6, FGFR1, and WNT10B. Herein, we report a novel variant of TP63 heterozygously present in affected members of a family with SHFM. Methods. This study investigated a Chinese family, in which the proband and his son suffered from SHFM. The peripheral blood sample of the proband was used to perform whole-exome sequencing (WES) to explore the possible genetic causes of this disease. Postsequencing bioinformatic analyses and Sanger sequencing were conducted to verify the identified variants and parental origins on all family members in the pedigree. Results. By postsequencing bioinformatic analyses and Sanger sequencing, we identified a novel missense variant (NM_003722.4:c.948G>A; p.Met316Ile) of TP63 in this family that results in a substitution of methionine with isoleucine, which is probably associated with the occurrence of SHFM. Conclusion. A novel missense variant (NM_003722.4:c.948G>A; p.Met316Ile) of TP63 in SHFM was thus identified, which may enlarge the spectrum of known TP63 variants and also provide new approaches for genetic counselling of families with SHFM.
Prevalence and Antifungal Susceptibility Profile of Clinically Relevant Candida Species in Postmenopausal Women with Diabetes
The incidence of diabetes mellitus has increased in Saudi Arabia, which has raised the risk of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). This study highlights the prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species among postmenopausal women with diabetes with symptoms of VVC in Taif, a city in Saudi Arabia. Several diagnostic tools were used to differentiate the yeast isolates, including microscopic examination, culture morphology on CHROM agar, further confirmation with the VITEK 2 system, and ITS1 and ITS4 region sequencing. Antifungal susceptibility of the selected Candida species was determined using the VITEK 2 system (bioMérieux Inc., USA). Out of the 550 high vaginal swabs investigated, 86 specimens were Candida species positive (15.6%) with a significant difference according to age; the positivity in the 45–50 years’ age group (12%) was higher than that in the 51–55 years’ age group (3.6%). Candida albicans was the most common causative agent in 51 samples (59.3%), followed by C. glabrata in 21 samples (24.41%) and C. krusei in 14 samples (16.27%), with no significant differences between the age groups. Three isolates, including two C. albicans and one C. krusei, exhibited resistance against all the tested antifungal agents. CHROM agar and VITEK 2 were accurate phenotypic tools to identify Candida species with 100% sensitivity and specificity and were consistent with the phylogenetic characterization. The data emphasized the importance of identifying Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility among postmenopausal women with diabetes, highlighting the potential risk posed by diabetes in this age group.
Mechanism by which TRAF6 Participates in the Immune Regulation of Autoimmune Diseases and Cancer
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is a signal transduction molecule shared by the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)/Toll-like receptor (TLR) family and the TNFR superfamily. TRAF6 has a unique TRAF domain and RING finger domain that mediate intracellular signaling events. In the immune system, TRAF6-mediated signaling has been shown to be critical for the development, homeostasis, and activation of a variety of immune cells, including B cells, T cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. Although the pathogenesis and etiology of autoimmune diseases and cancer are not fully understood, it is worth noting that existing studies have shown that TRAF6 is involved in the pathogenesis and development of a variety of these diseases. Herein, we reviewed the role of TRAF6 in certain immune cells, as well as the function and potential effect of TRAF6 in autoimmune diseases and cancer. Our review indicates that TRAF6 may be a novel target for autoimmune diseases and cancer.
The Neutrophil Percentage-to-Albumin Ratio as a New Predictor of All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Cardiogenic Shock
Background. Although the neutrophil percentage-to-albumin ratio (NPAR) has proven to be a robust systemic inflammation-based predictor of mortality in a wide range of diseases, the prognostic value of the NPAR in critically ill patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) remains unknown. This study aimed at investigating the association between the admission NPAR and clinical outcomes in CS patients using real-world data. Methods. Critically ill patients diagnosed with CS in the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-III (MIMIC-III) database were included in our study. The study endpoints included all-cause in-hospital, 30-day, and 365-day mortality in CS patients. First, the NPAR was analyzed as a continuous variable using restricted cubic spline Cox regression models. Second, X-tile analysis was used to calculate the optimal cut-off values for the NPAR and divide the cohort into three NPAR groups. Moreover, multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to assess the association of the NPAR groups with mortality. Results. A total of 891 patients hospitalized with CS were enrolled in this study. A nonlinear relationship between the NPAR and in-hospital and 30-day mortality was observed (all values for nonlinear trend<0.001). According to the optimal cut-off values by X-tile, NPARs were divided into three groups: group I (), group II (), and group III (). Multivariable Cox analysis showed that higher NPAR was independently associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality (group III vs. group I: hazard ratio [HR] 2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.72-3.92, ), 30-day mortality (group III vs. group I: HR 2.42, 95% CI 1.65-3.54, ), and 365-day mortality (group III vs. group I: HR 6.80, 95% CI 4.10-11.26, ) in patients with CS. Conclusions. Admission NPAR was independently associated with in-hospital, 30-day, and 365-day mortality in critically ill patients with CS.