Autologous Micrografts from Scalp Tissue: Trichoscopic and Long-Term Clinical Evaluation in Male and Female Androgenetic AlopeciaRead the full article
BioMed Research International publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects within the biomedical sciences. The journal will accept both basic and translational research.
BioMed Research International maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Expanding the Scope of Immunotherapy in Colorectal Cancer: Current Clinical Approaches and Future Directions
The success of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in an increasing range of heavily mutated tumor types such as melanoma has culminated in their exploration in different subsets of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). As a result of their dramatic and durable response rates in patients with chemorefractory, mismatch repair-deficient-microsatellite instability-high (dMMR-MSI-H) mCRC, ICIs have become potential alternatives to classical systemic therapies. The anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) agents, Pembrolizumab and Nivolumab, have been granted FDA approval for this subset of patients. Unfortunately, however, not all CRC cases with the dMMR-MSI-H phenotype respond well to ICIs, and ongoing studies are currently exploring biomarkers that can predict good response to them. Another challenge lies in developing novel treatment strategies for the subset of patients with the mismatch repair-proficient-microsatellite instability-low (pMMR-MSI-L) phenotype that comprises 95% of all mCRC cases in whom treatment with currently approved ICIs has been largely unsuccessful. Approaches aiming at overcoming the resistance of tumors in this subset of patients are being developed including combining different checkpoint inhibitors with either chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic agents, cancer vaccines, adoptive cell transfer (ACT), or bispecific T-cell (BTC) antibodies. This review describes the rationale behind using immunotherapeutics in CRC. It sheds light on the progress made in the use of immunotherapy in the treatment of patients with dMMR-MSI-H CRC. It also discusses emerging approaches and proposes potential strategies for targeting the immune microenvironment in patients with pMMR-MSI-L CRC tumors in an attempt to complement immune checkpoint inhibition.
PBX3 Promotes Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis via Activation of AT1R/VEGFR2 Pathway in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
PBX3 (Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 3) had been considered to be a multifunctional oncogene which involved in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis in leukemia and some solid tumors. However, the contribution of PBX3 to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remains unclear. In this study, we found that PBX3 expression was significantly upregulated in PTC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues, and high levels of PBX3 were correlated with tumor size, lymphatic metastasis, TMN stage, and poor prognosis of PTC patients. Overexpression of PBX3 in PTC cell lines promoted cell proliferation. Consistently, knockdown of PBX3 by shRNA induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, and inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, PBX3 promoted PTC cell proliferation and angiogenesis through activation of AT1R/VEGFR2 pathway while overexpression of AT1R and treatment with VEGFA reversed PBX3-shRNA-induced decreased phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream (ERK1/2, AKT and Src). It demonstrated that PBX3 could be used as a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for PTC.
Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing Ling Zhi 8 Protein Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver and Early Atherogenesis in Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by lipid deposits in the subendothelial space leading to severe inflammation. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) shares several risk factors with atherosclerosis, including dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, all of which lead to lipid deposition in the liver causing inflammation and fibrosis. Several clinical trials have shown that certain Chinese herbal medicines with anti-inflammatory effects can be used as adjuvant therapy to prevent the development of cardiovascular events and liver disease. Ling Zhi 8 (LZ8) is an immunomodulatory protein isolated from a medicinal mushroom and has been well documented to possess a broad range of pharmacological properties. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing LZ8 protein on NAFLD and atherogenesis in a cholesterol-fed rabbit model. Twelve rabbits were divided into three groups and fed with syrup only, L. lactis vehicle, or recombinant L. lactis-LZ8 once a day on weekdays for five weeks, respectively. The gene expression of IL-1β in the aorta was significantly suppressed after oral administration of L. lactis-LZ8. Moreover, in hematoxylin and eosin staining of the aorta, the intima-medial thickness was decreased, and foam cells were significantly reduced in the subendothelial space. LZ8 also inhibited the expression of IL-1β in the liver, decreased fat droplet deposits and infiltration of inflammatory cells, and improved liver function by decreasing liver enzymes in an animal model. Our results suggest that the Lactococcus-expressing LZ8 appears to be a promising medicine for improving both NAFLD and early atherogenesis owing to its anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, it is available as a low-cost food-grade product.
Whole-Genome Resequencing of Twenty Branchiostoma belcheri Individuals Provides a Brand-New Variant Dataset for Branchiostoma
As the extant representatives of the basal chordate lineage, amphioxi (including the genera Branchiostoma, Asymmetron and Epigonichthys) play important roles in tracing the state of chordate ancestry. Previous studies have reported that members of the Branchiostoma species have similar morphological phenotypic characteristics, but in contrast, there are high levels of genetic polymorphisms in the populations. Here, we resequenced 20 Branchiostomabelcheri genomes to an average depth of approximately 12.5X using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. In this study, over 52 million variations (~12% of the total genome) were detected in the B. belcheri population, and an average of 12.8 million variations (~3% of the total genome) were detected in each individual, confirming that Branchiostoma is one of the most genetically diverse species sequenced to date. Demographic inference analysis highlighted the role of historical global temperature in the long-term population dynamics of Branchiostoma, and revealed a population expansion at the Greenlandian stage of the current geological epoch. We detected 594 Single nucleotide polymorphism and 148 Indels in the Branchiostoma mitochondrial genome, and further analyzed their genetic mutations. A recent study found that the epithelial cells of the digestive tract in Branchiostoma can directly phagocytize food particles and convert them into absorbable nontoxic nutrients using powerful digestive and immune gene groups. In this study, we predicted all potential mutations in intracellular digestion-associated genes. The results showed that most “probably damaging” mutations were related to rare variants (MAF < 0.05) involved in strengthening or weakening the intracellular digestive capacity of Branchiostoma. Due to the extremely high number of polymorphisms in the Branchiostoma genome, our analysis with a depth of approximately 12.5X can only be considered a preliminary analysis. However, the novel variant dataset provided here is a valuable resource for further investigation of phagocytic intracellular digestion in Branchiostoma and determination of the phenotypic and genotypic features of Branchiostoma.
The Effect of Grapefruit Juice on the Pharmacokinetics of Tadalafil in Rats
We developed and validated a novel, sensitive, selective, and inexpensive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of tadalafil in rats plasma and to investigate the effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of tadalafil in rats. The ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 (4.6 × 150 mm, 5 μm) chromatography column can be used to separate tadalafil and carbamazepine (internal standard, IS). A mixture of acetonitrile-0.2% trifluoroacetic acid-water (48 : 10 : 42, V/V/V) was used as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The column temperature was set at 35.0°C. The detection wavelength was set at 286 nm. The tadalafil was extracted by ethyl acetate from plasma at the alkaline condition. 12 healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups, Group A (experimental group, received grapefruit juice 5 mL/kg for 7 days) and Group B (control group, received normal saline for 7 days). All the rats were given a single dose of tadalafil (5 mg/kg) after the last administration. The main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 software. Under the conditions of this experiment, the plasma concentrations of tadalafil in the range of 10–2000 ng/ml had a good linear relationship. The intra- and interday precision for tadalafil in plasma were less than 15%, and the relative recovery rate was good at low, medium, and high QC levels. The Cmax of tadalafil in the control group and the experimental group was (725.89 ± 161.59) ng/mL and (1271.60 ± 179.31) ng/mL, t1/2 was (9.28 ± 2.07) h and (11.70 ± 1.47) h, AUC (0-t) was (7399.61 ± 696.85) ng·h/mL and (9586.52 ± 2048.81) ng·h/mL, and AUC(0-∞) was (7995.50 ± 707.23) ng·h/mL and (10639.43 ± 2235.94) ng·h/mL, respectively. Results show that the Cmax of tadalafil in group A was 75.17% higher than that in group B, the Vz/F was also reduced, and the t1/2 was increased by 2.42 h. The developed HPLC–DAD method for the determination of tadalafil in rats plasma was accurate, reproducible, specific, and it was found to be suitable for the pharmacokinetics of tadalafil and food-drug interactions. Grapefruit juice can inhibit the metabolism of tadalafil and increase the exposure of tadalafil in rats.
HbA1C Variability Is Strongly Associated with Development of Macroalbuminuria in Normal or Microalbuminuria in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Six-Year Follow-Up Study
Background. Glycemic variability is associated with higher risk of microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. Aim. To test the hypothesis that glycemic variability can contribute to progression to macroalbuminuria in normal or microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design. This prospective study enrolled 193 patients with type 2 diabetes at a tertiary medical center. Methods. For each patient, the intrapersonal glycemic variability (mean, SD, and coefficient of variation of HbA1c) was calculated using all measurements obtained three years before the study. Patients were divided into four groups stratified by both urine albumin/creatinine ratio and HbA1c-SD. The presence of macroalbuminuria was assessed with Kaplan–Meier plots and compared by log-rank test. Results. Of the 193 patients, 83 patients were in the macroalbuminuria state. Patients in the initial macroalbuminuria group after enrollment had the highest diabetes duration, mean, CV-HbA1c and HbA1c-SD, and uric acid level, and the lowest estimate glomerular filtration rate, followed by subsequent macroalbuminuria and without macroalbuminuria groups. Patients with microalbuminuria and high HbA1c-SD showed the highest progression rate to macroalbuminuria, after a six-year follow-up study by Kaplan–Meier Plots and compared by log-rank test. Conclusions. Higher HbA1C variability is more likely to progress to macroalbuminuria in those patients who are already in a microalbuminuria state. We recommend that clinicians should aggressively control blood glucose to an acceptable range and avoid blood glucose fluctuations by individualized treatment to prevent renal status progression.