Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2008, Article ID 165730, 9 pages
Research Article

Influence of Muscle-Tendon Wrapping on Calculations of Joint Reaction Forces in the Equine Distal Forelimb

1Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Melbourne School of Engineering, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
2Department of Veterinary Clinic and Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3030, Australia

Received 14 September 2007; Accepted 24 December 2007

Academic Editor: Daniel Howard

Copyright © 2008 Jonathan S. Merritt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The equine distal forelimb is a common location of injuries related to mechanical overload. In this study, a two-dimensional model of the musculoskeletal system of the region was developed and applied to kinematic and kinetic data from walking and trotting horses. The forces in major tendons and joint reaction forces were calculated. The components of the joint reaction forces caused by wrapping of tendons around sesamoid bones were found to be of similar magnitude to the reaction forces between the long bones at each joint. This finding highlighted the importance of taking into account muscle-tendon wrapping when evaluating joint loading in the equine distal forelimb.