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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 574398, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/574398
Review Article

DNA, RNA, and Protein Extraction: The Past and The Present

1School of Postgraduate Studies & Research, Division of Pharmacy, International Medical University, No. 126, Jalan 19/155B, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2School of Pharmacy and Health Science, Division of Pharmacy, International Medical University, No. 126, Jalan 19/155B, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 1 July 2009; Accepted 5 November 2009

Academic Editor: Joakim Lundeberg

Copyright © 2009 Siun Chee Tan and Beow Chin Yiap. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Extraction of DNA, RNA, and protein is the basic method used in molecular biology. These biomolecules can be isolated from any biological material for subsequent downstream processes, analytical, or preparative purposes. In the past, the process of extraction and purification of nucleic acids used to be complicated, time-consuming, labor-intensive, and limited in terms of overall throughput. Currently, there are many specialized methods that can be used to extract pure biomolecules, such as solution-based and column-based protocols. Manual method has certainly come a long way over time with various commercial offerings which included complete kits containing most of the components needed to isolate nucleic acid, but most of them require repeated centrifugation steps, followed by removal of supernatants depending on the type of specimen and additional mechanical treatment. Automated systems designed for medium-to-large laboratories have grown in demand over recent years. It is an alternative to labor-intensive manual methods. The technology should allow a high throughput of samples; the yield, purity, reproducibility, and scalability of the biomolecules as well as the speed, accuracy, and reliability of the assay should be maximal, while minimizing the risk of cross-contamination.