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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2009, Article ID 579175, 9 pages
Research Article

Rapid Determination of Ractopamine Residues in Edible Animal Products by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: Development and Investigation of Matrix Effects

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China

Received 20 February 2009; Revised 12 May 2009; Accepted 22 July 2009

Academic Editor: Harry W. Schroeder

Copyright © 2009 Yan Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


To determine ractopamine residues in animal food products (chicken muscle, pettitoes, pig muscle, and pig liver), we established a rapid direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a polyclonal antibody generated from ractopamine-linker-BSA. The antibody showed high sensitivity and specificity in phosphate buffer, with an of 0.6 ng/mL, and the limit of detection was 0.04 ng/mL. The matrix effect of the samples was easily eliminated by one-step extraction with PBS, without any organic solution or clean-up procedure such as SPE or liquid-liquid extraction, making it a much more simple and rapid method than previously reported ones. The detection limit in blank samples was 0.2  g/kg. To validate this new RAC (ractopamine hydrochloride) ELISA, a RAC-free pig liver sample spiked at three different concentrations was prepared and analyzed by HPLC and ELISA. The results showed a good correlation between the data of ELISA and HPLC ( ), which proves that the established ELISA is accurate enough to quantify the residue of RAC in the animal derived foods.