TIS11 Family Proteins and Their Roles in Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation
Pathways and major components of ARE-mediated mRNA decay by TIS11 proteins. TIS11 protein binds to the ARE sequence in the UTR and recruits deadenylases either directly (hCcr4) or indirectly (PARN). Deadenylated mRNA can be recruited by the exosome, a multiprotein structure containing proteins such as Rrp4, Rrp40, Rrp41, and PM-Scl75 that form the to exoribonuclease complex. Decapping of mRNA can follow deadenylation mediated by decapping enzymes such as Dcp1 and Dcp2 and degradation of mRNA can then be mediated by the to Xrn1 exonuclease.