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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 717941, 7 pages
Research Article

Alterations in Adenylate Kinase Activity in Human PBMCs after In Vitro Exposure to Electromagnetic Field: Comparison between Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF) and Therapeutic Application of a Musically Modulated Electromagnetic Field (TAMMEF)

1TAMMEF Centre, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
2Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine-Metabolic Sciences and Biochemistry, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy

Received 12 March 2009; Revised 20 May 2009; Accepted 7 July 2009

Academic Editor: Richard Gomer

Copyright © 2009 Antonietta Albanese et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study investigated the effects of electromagnetic fields on enzymes involved in purine metabolism in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Cells were obtained from 20 volunteers. We tested both low-energy, extremely low frequency (ELF; 100-Hz) electromagnetic fields and the Therapeutic Application of Musically Modulated Electromagnetic Fields (TAMMEFs); the latter is characterized by variable frequencies, intensities, and wave shapes. Adenylate kinase activity was increased after ELF field exposure but decreased slightly after TAMMEF exposure. Neither of the two electromagnetic field affected the activities of the purine metabolism enzymes ecto- -nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase, and adenosine kinase. We concluded that ELF fields may influence cellular electrical charge stability; stimulation of adenylate kinase activity could restore the cell to a state of equilibrium. In contrast, TAMMEF fields may be useful for maintaining and regulating the cellular electrical charge.