Figure 5: Affinity of the ATF to HMOX1 enhancer. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed; the candidate vectors were pcDNA3.1-AZP-p65-flag (AZP-p65), pcDNA3.1-NLS-AZP-p65-flag (NLS-AZP-p65), PUC57-AZP (AZP), pcDNA3.1-NLS-eGFP-p65-flag (p65), and pcDNA3.1- a z p -p65-flag ( a z p -p65). For each of the vectors, four dose gradients (0, 50 ng, 100 ng, and 150 ng) were used. The firefly-luciferase reporters were (a) hHO4.9luc and (b) pGL3-control, respectively. The data represent the means ± S.D.