BioMed Research International / 2010 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Molecular Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Barrier: Contribution of Microbiota

Figure 1

Commensal microbiota, or pathogens, at the mucosal surface create signals, called microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), to stimulate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including toll-like receptors (TLRs), formylated peptide receptors (FPRs), or nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NODs). Subsequent signaling consists of an intricate and inter-relational pathway, which determines the signaling output based on the initial perception of the triggering organism. Output can be a protective response to commensal microbiota, an inflammatory response to pathogenic organisms, or triggers for apoptosis.