Figure 2: Pharmacological activity of VPA described in the literature. Schematic representation of direct and indirect targets of VPA. Principal direct targets known for VPA are ionic channels and ABAT (in green). Epigenetic action of VPA (in violet) as HDACi activity: VPA targets the transcriptomic system and principally directly inhibits HDAC class I (subcategories 1, 2, and 3), and less strongly class II/a (subcategories 4, 5, and 7), but induces HDAC 9 and 11, and indirectly inhibits the function of SMC and DNMT. Probably due to its epigenetic properties, or interactions not yet established, VPA alters, directly or indirectly, expression of many molecules involved in molecular pathways such as apoptosis, inflammation, differentiation, and proliferation (in red).