Table 2: Urine biomarkers that correlate with lupus nephritis activity in cross-sectional studies.

Authors, yearBiomarkers studiedMain findings

Kiani et al., 2009 [13]Urine osteoprotegerin (OPG)OPG strongly associated with renal activity descriptors of the SELENA SLEDAI; medium/high levels of OPG predictive of a urine protein/creatinine ratio of 0.5
Wang et al., 2009 [73]FOXP3 mRNA expression in urinary sedimentsFOXP3 mRNA expression significantly higher in active than inactive lupus nephritis, and in proliferative than nonproliferative nephritis, FOXP3 mRNA level correlated with proteinuria and histological activity index; persistent elevation associated with poor treatment response
Dhaun et al., 2009 [74]Urine endothelin-1Fractional excretion of endothelin-1 and urinary endothelin-1/creatinine ratio higher in lupus nephritis than other chronic inflammatory renal diseases when renal function is normal
Enghard et al., 2009 [75]Urine CXCR3+CD4+T cellsUrinary CXCR3+CD4+ T cells are enriched in lupus nephritis and correlated with SLE disease activity; higher concentration of urinary CXCR3+CD4+ T cells is found in active than inactive nephritis
Tucci et al., 2008 [65]Serum and urine IL-12Glomerular expression of IL-12 predominantly occurs in class IV and V lupus nephritis; serum and urine IL-12 higher in lupus nephritis than nonrenal SLE
Wu et al., 2007 [76]Urine VCAM-1, P-selectin, TNFR-1, and CXCL16Urinary VCAM-1, P-selectin, TNFR-1, and CXCL16 elevated in lupus nephritis, correlating with proteinuria and SLE disease activity scores; urinary VCAM-1 and CXCL16 showed superior specificity and sensitivity in distinguishing subjects with active renal disease from the other SLE patients.
Hammad et al., 2006 [77]Urine TGF 𝛽 -1Urinary TGF 𝛽 -1 level significantly higher in active than silent lupus nephritis, correlated with anti-dsDNA and C3 levels
Chan et al., 2004 [78]TGF 𝛽 and MCP-1 mRNA expression in urine sedimentsUrinary TGF 𝛽 and MCP-1 mRNA expression correlated with histological activity index on renal biopsy