Table 3: Biomarkers that correlate with histological findings in lupus nephritis.

Authors, yearBiomarkers studiedMain findings

Oates et al., 2008 [83]Serum nitrate and nitrite levelsSerum nitrate plus nitrite levels associated with SLE disease activity score; higher nitrate/nitrite levels associated with histological proliferative renal lesions
Marks et al., 2008 [84]Glomerular MCP-1 expressionGlomerular monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression higher in class III and class IV than other classes of lupus nephritis
Nakayamada et al., 2007 [85] 𝛽 1-integrin (CD29) expression on T cellsCD29 expression on T cells upregulated in active SLE, especially in active diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis
Avihingsanon et al., 2006 [86]Chemokine and growth factor mRNA levels in urinary sedimentsUrine interferon-producing protein 10 (IP-10), CXCR3, TGF- 𝛽 , and VEGF mRNA levels associated with class IV lupus nephritis
do Nascimento et al., 2006 [87]Antiribosomal P antibodyFrequency of antiribosomal P antibody higher in class V than other classes of lupus nephritis
Oates et al., 2005 [88]Urine glycoprotein panelAn urinary glycoprotein panel may help to differentiate different histological classes of lupus nephritis