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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2010, Article ID 641025, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/641025
Review Article

Thrombin Inhibitors from Different Animals

1Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Butantan Institute, Avenue Vital Brazil 1500, 05503-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2Biotechnology Inter Units, ICB-USP, Avenue Prof. Lineu Prestes 1730, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
3Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Rua 3 de Maio 100, 04044-020 São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Received 24 March 2010; Revised 16 June 2010; Accepted 2 August 2010

Academic Editor: Saulius Butenas

Copyright © 2010 A. M. Tanaka-Azevedo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Venous and arterial thromboembolic diseases are still the most frequent causes of death and disability in high-income countries. Clinical anticoagulants are inhibitors of enzymes involved in the coagulation pathway, such as thrombin and factor . Thrombin is a key enzyme of blood coagulation system, activating the platelets, converting the fibrinogen to the fibrin net, and amplifying its self-generation by the activation of factors V, VIII, and XI. Thrombin has long been a target for the development of oral anticoagulants. Furthermore, selective inhibitors of thrombin represent a new class of antithrombotic agents. For these reasons, a number of specific thrombin inhibitors are under evaluation for possible use as antithrombotic drugs. This paper summarizes old and new interests of specific thrombin inhibitors described in different animals.