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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2010, Article ID 715739, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/715739
Research Article

Acanthopanax koreanum Fruit Waste Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Production of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

1Jeju Biodiversity Research Institute (JBRI) & Jeju Hi-Tech Industry Development Institute (HiDI), Jeju 699-943, South Korea
2Sansaemi Agricultural Association, Susan-ri Aewol-eup, Jeju 697-943, South Korea
3Dermapro Skin Research Center, Dermapro Co. Ltd., Seoul 137-843, South Korea
4Department of Chemistry, Cheju National University, Ara-dong, Jeju 690-756, South Korea

Received 19 August 2009; Revised 3 December 2009; Accepted 8 January 2010

Academic Editor: Elvira Gonzalez De Mejia

Copyright © 2010 Eun-Jin Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The Acanthopanax koreanum fruit is a popular fruit in Jeju Island, but the byproducts of the alcoholic beverage prepared using this fruit are major agricultural wastes. The fermentability of this waste causes many economic and environmental problems. Therefore, we investigated the suitability of using A. koreanum fruit waste (AFW) as a source of antiinflammatory agents. AFWs were extracted with 80% EtOH. The ethanolic extract was then successively partitioned with hexane, C H 2 C l 2 , EtOAc, BuOH, and water. The results indicate that the C H 2 C l 2 fraction (100 𝜇 g/mL) of AFW inhibited the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 ( P G E 2 ) production in RAW 264.7 cells by 79.6% and 39.7%, respectively. These inhibitory effects of the C H 2 C l 2 fraction of AFWs were accompanied by decreases in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins and iNOS and COX-2 mRNA in a dose-dependent pattern. The C H 2 C l 2 fraction of AFWs also prevented degradation of I 𝜅 B- 𝛼 in a dose-dependent manner. Ursolic acid was identified as major compound present in AFW, and C H 2 C l 2 extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore using pure ursolic acid as standard and by HPLC, AFW and C H 2 C l 2 extracts was found to contain 1.58 mg/g and 1.75 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, we tested the potential application of AFW extracts as a cosmetic material by performing human skin primary irritation tests. In these tests, AFW extracts did not induce any adverse reactions. Based on these results, we suggest that AFW extracts be considered possible anti-inflammatory candidates for topical application.