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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2010, Article ID 737125, 7 pages
Review Article

Toll-Like Receptor Initiated Host Defense against Toxoplasma gondii

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA

Received 9 September 2009; Accepted 30 September 2009

Academic Editor: Jorge Morales-Montor

Copyright © 2010 Eric Y. Denkers. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular pathogen notable for its ability to establish a stable host-parasite relationship amongst a wide range of host species and in a large percentage of the human population. Toll-like receptor signaling through MyD88 is a critical pathway in initiating defense against this opportunistic protozoan and may also be a mediator of pathology during immune dysfunction. Other MyD88 independent signaling pathways are also involved in the host-parasite interaction. These responses can be triggered by the parasite itself, but interactions with the intestinal microbiota add additional complexity during enteric infection.