Figure 1: Possible involvement of immune cells and mediators in the helminth-induced immunomodulation on T helper subsets. Substances contained in the bodies of helminths or their excretory secretory (ES) products are recognized by innate immune cells via PAMPs receptors like TLRs. Thereafter, various changes occur in the immune cells, for example, down-modulation of IL-12/23p40 expression (DC), alternative activation (macrophages), proliferation and/or IL-10 production (Treg, Tr1, and B cells), and IL-4 production (basophils). We can observe suppression of immune disorders with down-regulation of pathogenic T helper subsets (Th1, Th17, and allergic Th2) as consequence of mixed effects of such immunological changes.