Figure 1: Schistosome soluble antigens change the phenotype of primary splenic DCs. (a) DCs, isolated by immunomagnetic selection, increase surface expression of CLRs in response to SEA stimulation. DCs were cultured overnight with 25  𝜇 g/ml SEA and were analyzed by flow cytometry, excluding nonviable (7-AAD+) cells. Data are representative of at least three independent experiments. (b) SEA enhances bioactive TGF 𝛽 production by DCs stimulated with Pam3CysK4. DCs were isolated by immunomagnetic selection and cultured for 48 hours at 1 × 1 0 5 /well with 100 ng/ml LPS, 100 ng/ml Pam3CysK4, and/or 25  𝜇 g/ml SEA. The supernatants were then cultured with a TGF 𝛽 -responsive cell line and compared to a dose-response curve for recombinant human TGF 𝛽 1. Data shown are the means +/−SEM of triplicate wells. (c) SEA decreases LPS-induced IL-12p35 and p40 mRNA levels in splenic DCs. Cells ( 5 × 1 0 5 ) were stimulated for 4 hours in the presence of 100 ng/ml LPS and/or 25  𝜇 g/ml SEA, and mRNA was analyzed in real time using qPCR. Data shown are the means +/−SEM of data from three experiments. * 𝑃 < . 0 5 by paired 𝑡 test, two tailed.