Figure 2: Schistosome antigens alternatively activate M Φ s in vivo. (a) Increased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and mediators in the peritoneal cavity following SEA treatment of NOD mice are illustrated. (b) Induction of arginase and Fizz-1, markers of M Φ alternative activation in PECs is given. (c) Alternative activation in response to S. mansoni antigens shows a distinct pattern from that of the classical activation seen in response to LPS. Six-week-old female NOD mice were injected i.p. with 50  𝜇 g SEA or 10  𝜇 g LPS on day 0 and day 7, and PECs were collected for FACS and RT-qPCR analysis on day 10. Data shown are the responses of six mice per group for (a) and (b) or one mouse per condition for (c). Statistical analysis by Mann Whitney U test, two-tailed.