Figure 5: TGF 𝛽 modulates the Th2 response to SEA in vitro and in vivo. (a) Treatment of NOD mice with anti-TGF 𝛽 reduces the Th2 response to SEA in vivo. Female NOD mice (10-11 weeks of age) were injected i.p. with 50  𝜇 g SEA on days 0 and 5, 5 mg anti-TGF 𝛽 on days 0, 2, and 5, and cells were taken for analysis on day 10. Data shown are from a single experiment using anti-TGF 𝛽 and SEA. (b) Antibody neutralization of TGF 𝛽 in vitro diminishes the Th2 response to SEA. Naïve CD4+ T cells ( 5 × 1 0 5 ) were cultured for five days with bmDCs (105) and 0.5  𝜇 g/ml 𝛼 CD3 in the presence of SEA (10  𝜇 g/ml) and/or anti-TGF 𝛽 (20  𝜇 g/ml). FACS plots from one of three independent polarization experiments are shown.