Figure 1: Effects of APA deficiency on SBP. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of APA−/−, APA+/−, and APA+/+ mice at 3 months ( to 15 per group) was determined by a tail-cuff system. Each datum point represents the mean measurement of 2-d taken after 4-d training period. The average ± SEM of each group is represented by an open circle and a bar. * .