BioMed Research International / 2011 / Article / Fig 4

Research Article

The Combined Effect of Electrical Stimulation and High-Load Isometric Contraction on Protein Degradation Pathways in Muscle Atrophy Induced by Hindlimb Unloading

Figure 4

Expression levels of cathepsin L (a), calpain 1 (b), calpain 2 (c), atrogin-1/MAFbx (atrogin-1; d), and muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF-1; e) mRNA in the tibialis anterior muscle. Values were calculated as the fold changes relative to the Cont and presented as the mean ± SEM. *, , and are significantly different from the Cont, HU, and ES groups, respectively, at P < 0.05. in the Cont and HU groups, in the ES and groups.

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