Current procedures for inducing heart damage in animals.
|Species||Heart failure models|
|Murine||Myocardial damage |
Chemical: isoproterenol administration .
Electrical: overlapping burns .
Surgical: coronary artery ligation .
|Ischemia Reperfusion: |
Transient occlusion of the left coronary artery .
|Cryoinfarction: cryo-injuries to the epicardium .|
|Pressure overload: aortic constriction and banding. Aortic stenosis [110, 111].|
|Transgenic models of dilated cardiomyopathy: mutation of cardiac α-actin protein . |
|Rabbit||Spontaneous: WHHLMI rabbits .|
|Coronary artery occlusion: similar to the murine model, also applicable to the carotid artery. This is an excellent model for testing endovascular therapies .|
|Pressure overload: aortic banding , valvular stenosis . |
|Tachycardia: ventricular pacing .|
|Aortic stenosis . |
|Pig||Surgical model: balloon occlusion of coronary arteries .|
|Tachycardia: pacing-induced supraventricular tachycardia .|