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Figure 3: TLR4 signaling – a converged immune response pathway for hemorrhagic shock and septic shock. TLR4 not only serves as a key sensor of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) but also is proposed recently to act as a receptor for some endogenous molecules called “alarmins”. HDACIs block TLR4 signaling at multiple steps; therefore, they can inhibit immune response for both hemorrhagic shock and septic shock.