Figure 2: Cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis from the initiation phase to the amplification/progression phase. Immune deposits and/or autoantibodies induce the secretion of cytokine in the renal resident cells, which promote the infiltration and activation of leukocytes in the disease initiation phase. Activated leukocytes also produce cytokines, which leads to the further immune response in the disease amplification/progression phase.