Figure 4: Ts-Cav-1 gene expression in T. spiralis ML cultured in presence of sex steroids. A single band of 306 bp, corresponding to the caveolin-1 of T. spiralis, was detected in all parasites cultured at 36 hr (a). Progesterone and estradiol reduced the expression level of this gene at least 40%, while testosterone has no effect on the expression of this gene (b). Densitometric analysis is shown (b). 18 S was used as constitutive expression gene. Data are represented as mean ± SD. .