Table 1: Compilation of the metabolomic studies in cardiovascular field, including candidate biomarkers.

Pathology (Patients no.)MetaboliteBody fluid/tissueAnalytical techniqueReplicationReference

NSTACS (9), stable atherosclerosis (10), healthy (10)4-hydroxyprolinePlasmaGC-MS[36]
CAD (15), no CAD (14)17 polypeptides (CAD pattern) Collagen α1 (I,III)Urine, PlasmaCE-MSTest set: CAD (26), no CAD (12)[37]
PMI (20), control (16)
SMI (12), control (9)
Aconitic acid, hypoxanthine, trimethylamine N-oxide, threoninePlasmaLC-MSValidation: PMI (16)[41]
High-fat diet (9), common-diet (9) rats12 altered in plasma, 8 altered in urine (atherosclerotic rats)Urine, PlasmaLC-MS[42]
Atherosclerosis (9), healthy (10)24 altered metabolites (insulin resistance)PlasmaNMR, GC-MS[45]
CAD (12), LVD (10), control (17)Acetylcarnitine, 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitinePlasmaFI-MS[46]
Initial: CAD (174), control (174)
Replication: CAD (140), control (140)
Dicarboxyl acylcarnitinesPlasmaGC-MSEvent replication: CAD (63), control (66)[49]
Inducible ischemia (18), control (18)Citric acid pathwayPlasmaLC-MS[52]
Persistent AF: AF (8), SR (8)
Post-operative AF: SR-AF (18), SR (19)
β-hydroxybutyrate, ketogenic amino acids, glycineAtrial tissueNMR[50]
Apo E-/- mice captroil treated (8), untreated (8)Allantoin (drug treatment) Xanthine, ascorbate
(plaque formation)
UrineNMR[22]

CAD: coronary artery disease, PMI: planned myocardial infarction, SMI: spontaneous myocardial infarction, LVD: left ventricular dysfunction, FI: flow injection, AF: atrial fibrillation, SR: sinus rhythm. Numbers in brackets correspond to number of assayed individuals (or animals if so specified).