Table 2: Characteristic features of programmed cell death.

Programmed cell death (PCD)FeatureKey regulatorsMeasurements

Apoptosis (type I PCD)Chromatin condensationCaspasesCaspase activation
DNA ladderingCytochrome c DNA fragmentation
Blebbing (nuclear, cytoplasmic)
Apoptotic bodies
Bcl-2 family membersAnnexin V

Autophagy (type II PCD)BlebbingAutophagy. genes: beclin, LC3, Atg1, Atg5, and Atg7 LC3 localization
Autophagic vesicles
Degradation of GolgiAutophagic vesicles
No DNA laddering

Necrosis (type III PCD)Swollen organellesRIPK1, TRAF2, PARP, and CalpainsExtracellular HMGB1
Random DNA degradation
Cytoplasmic membrane ruptureS100 family members
Potent inflammatory response