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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 980286, 7 pages
Review Article

Th Subset Balance in Lupus Nephritis

1Division of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan
2Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan

Received 27 June 2011; Accepted 5 July 2011

Academic Editor: Brian Poole

Copyright © 2011 Katsuhisa Miyake et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Lupus nephritis, which has various histological patterns and variable clinical outcomes, is one of the most important complications of systemic lupus nephritis (SLE). This pathogenetic mechanism in each histologically different type of lupus nephritis (LN) remains unclear. Although SLE is suggested to be a Th2-driven disease, elevation of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines occurs in both humans and mice, suggesting that SLE is a complex disease driven by different lymphocyte subsets with high heterogeneity of clinical manifestations and organ involvement. Recent findings in LN elucidate an essential role for the Th1, IL-17 producing T cells and Th17 cells in the development of diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (DPLN), and Th2 cytokine in that of membranous lupus nephritis (MLN). These data support the hypothesis that individual Th1/Th2 balance is one of the critical determinants for histopathology of LN.