Proteomics Shows New Faces for the Old Penicillin Producer Penicillium chrysogenum
Examples of two well-known modifications that occurred during the strain improvement program. (a) Amplification of the DNA region containing the penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster in high-producing strains. LEB: left end border; REB: right end border; TRU: tandem repetition union. (b) Modification in the metabolic fluxes through the homogentisate pathway for phenylacetic acid catabolism and the penicillin biosynthetic pathway. Thickness of arrows indicates the flux rate through a specific enzyme. -AAA: α-aminoadipic acid; ACV: δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine; CoA: coenzyme A; Cys: cysteine; Val: Valine, Barreiro et al., 2011.
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