Figure 4: Alcohol-induced liver TLR mRNA expression. The upper panel shows the results of the RT-PCR analysis of the TLR1~9, 12, and 13 expressions. The images show the representative agarose gel electrophoresis of the PCR products. The bottom panel shows the relative expressions of the TLR1~9, 12, and 13 levels. The data were normalized to the GAPDH levels, and all the expression levels that are shown are relative to the ND. The results that are shown represent the means ± SEM of the three independent experiments in which RNA samples from eight mice were used. a, b, cMeans not sharing a common letter are significantly different ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 ).