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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012, Article ID 234937, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/234937
Research Article

Effect of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 and Tissue Plasminogen Activator Polymorphisms on Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes in Malaysian Subjects

1Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Sana’a, Yemen
3Department of Medicine, University Malaya Medical Centre, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
4Faculty of Dentistry, Ibb University, Ibb, Yemen

Received 16 October 2011; Revised 5 February 2012; Accepted 15 February 2012

Academic Editor: Leonid Medved

Copyright Β© 2012 Zaid Al-Hamodi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Elevated activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and decreased tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity are considered to be important risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the PAI-1 4G/5G and tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphisms with T2DM in Malaysian subjects. Serum insulin, coronary risk panel, plasma glucose, and PAI-1 4G/5G and tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphisms were studied in 303 T2DM subjects (227 with MetS and 76 without MetS) and 131 normal subjects without diabetes and MetS. Statistical analysis showed that the dominant and additive models of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism showed a weak association with T2DM without MetS ( O R = 2 . 3 5 , 𝑃 = 0 . 0 4 5 ; O R = 1 . 6 7 , 𝑃 = 0 . 0 5 8 ). On the other hand, the recessive model of the tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphism showed an association with T2DM with MetS ( O R = 3 . 3 2 , 𝑃 = 0 . 0 1 3 ) whereas the dominant and additive models of the tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphism were not associated with T2DM either with or without MetS.