Table 3: Drug interactions of artemisinins.

Drug combinationCancer/cell lineEffectRefs

DHA + TemozolomideRat C6 glioma cellsIncreased apoptosis, ROS
Induced necrosis

DHA + CyclophosphamideLewis lung carcinomaIncreased apoptosis, decreased VEGF receptor KDR/flk-1

DHA + CisplatinHuman non-small cell lung cancer (A549)Decreased metastasis[84]

DHA + GemcitabinePancreas (Panc-1)
Inhibition of proliferation, decreased cyclin D1
Increased apoptosis, increased Bax/Bcl2 ratio, activation of caspase 3
Hepatoma (cell panel)Increased growth inhibition by 45%[67]

DHA + Butyric acidHuman lymphoblastoid leukemia (Molt-4)Synergistic. Depletion of cancer cells[110]

DHA + RadiationGlioma cells
Increased cytotoxicity
Inhibition of radiation-induced GST

DHA + CarboplatinOvarian cancer cells (A2780, OVCAR-3)Increased growth inhibition through death receptor and mitochondrial mediated pathways[77]

DHA + TRAILProstate cancer (DU145, PC-3, LNCaP)Increased apoptosis extrinsic and intrinsic pathways[100]

ART/DHA + Doxorubicin + PirarubicinLeukemia (K562/adr)
Small cell lung cancer (GLC4/adr)

ART + LenalidomideLung (A549) and breast (MCF-7)Decreased IC50 by 48%[111]

ART + OxiplatinColon (HT 1116)Additive. Sensitising effect [111]
ART + GemcitabineBreast (MCF-7)Additive
Lung (A549)Additive

ATM + Oxiplatin
ATM + Thalidomide
ATM + Gemcitabine
Colon (HCTl16, SW480)
Breast (MCF-7)
All additive[63]

ARS + Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2)Molt-4 human leukemia22% decrease in growth[112]

ARS + DoxorubicinColon cancer(HT29)Predicted as antagonic, mediated by activation of NF-κB/overexpression of Pgp[59]

ARS + OxiplatinColon (HCTl16, SW480)Antagonism [63]
ARS + ThalidomideAdditive
ARS + GemcitabineBreast (MCF-7)Antagonism

Abbreviations: HBO2: hyperbaric oxygen.