Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012, Article ID 308381, 9 pages
Research Article

Toward a Blended Ontology: Applying Knowledge Systems to Compare Therapeutic and Toxicological Nanoscale Domains

National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA

Received 3 October 2011; Accepted 7 January 2012

Academic Editor: P. Bryant Chase

Copyright © 2012 Christopher M. Grulke et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. H. de Jong and P. J. A. Borm, “Drug delivery and nanoparticles: applications and hazards,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 133–149, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. PEW Charitable Trust, Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, 2011,
  3. M. Auffan, J. Rose, J.-Y. Bottero, G. V. Lowry, J.-P. Jolivet, and M. R. Wiesner, “Towards a definition of inorganic nanoparticles from an environmental, health and safety perspective,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 634–641, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. Yan, F. Zhao, S. Li, Z. Hu, and Y. Zhao , “Low-toxic and safe nanomaterials by surface-chemical design, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, metallofullerenes, and graphenes,” Nanoscale, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 362–382, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Report No. EPA 100/B-07/001, 2007,
  6. IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, The “Gold Book”, Blackwell Science, 2nd edition, 1997, Online corrected version, “chirality”, 2006,
  7. D. Fourches, D. Pu, C. Tassa et al., “Quantitative nanostructure-activity relationship modeling,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 5703–5712, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. R. Goldsmith, C. B. George, G. Zuber et al., “The chiroptical signature of achiral metal clusters induced by dissymmetric adsorbates,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 63–67, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. M. Whitesides, “The “right” size in nanobiotechnology,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1161–1165, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. de la Iglesia, S. Chlesa, J. Kern et al., “Nanoinformatics: new challenges for biomedical informatics at the nano level,” Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 150, pp. 987–991, 2009. View at Google Scholar