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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012, Article ID 308414, 5 pages
Review Article

Is BAC Transgenesis Obsolete? State of the Art in the Era of Designer Nucleases

1Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universität München, Trogerstraße 30, 81679 Munich, Germany
2Institute of Animal Laboratory Sciences, VetSuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurer Straße 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland

Received 10 April 2012; Accepted 31 May 2012

Academic Editor: Masamitsu Yamaguchi

Copyright © 2012 J. Beil et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


DNA constructs based on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are frequently used to generate transgenic animals as they reduce the influence of position effects and allow predictable expression patterns for genes whose regulatory sequences are not fully identified. Despite these advantages BAC transgenics suffer from drawbacks such as complicated vector construction, low efficiency of transgenesis, and some remaining expression variegation. The recent development of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) has resulted in new transgenic techniques which do not have the drawbacks associated with BAC transgenesis. Initial reports indicate that such designer nucleases (DNs) allow the targeted insertion of transgenes into endogenous loci by direct injection of the targeting vector and mRNA/DNA encoding the predesigned nucleases into oocytes. This results in the transgene being inserted at a specific locus in the mouse genome, thus circumventing the drawbacks associated with BAC transgenesis.