Figure 1: Expression of ryanodine receptor alpha (RyRα) and beta (RyRβ) isoform mRNAs in brain (B), heart (H), skeletal muscle (M), semicircular canal ampulla (A), semicircular canal arm (C), and whole labyrinth (L) of the frog. (a) mRNA levels were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction relative to the fp1 internal standard (see Materials and Methods), and the values obtained were reported as ΔCt. Bars represent the mean ± SEM of at least 4 different experiments, each from different RNA extracts. a, 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 versus H, A, L, C; b, 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 versus B, H, A, L, C; c, 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 versus H, L; d, 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 versus H, A, L; e, 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 versus H, L. (one-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls 𝑄 test). n.d., not detected. When not present, SEM was within the symbol area. Note that high ΔCt values reflect low mRNA expression levels. (b) Gel electrophoresis of PCR products. The PCR products were of the expected size: RyRα, 329 bp; RyRβ, 325 bp; fp1, 356 bp. Neg: reaction without template. Similar results were obtained from at least four different frog RNA extracts.