Table 2: Trials of cruciferous plants, their derivatives, or their constituents in humans.

          Study details    Patient details          Intervention                Outcome
ReferenceStudy design1SettingNo. of patients/
Age rangeConcurrent conditions/
Route3Duration4DoseAdverse eventsOutcome5Causality6

Safety trials Shapiro et al. 2006 [18] RCT Hospital 9/3 28–57  yrs Healthy Broccoli sprout extract Oral 7 days 3 doses a day, 25 μmol glucosinolate 100 μmol glucosinolate, or 25 μmol isothiocyanate No adverse events NA NA

Figueroa et al. 2005 [19]CCT Hospital38/383–39  yrs Reported mustard allergy. Atopy and allergies to a variety of other allergensMustard and a variety of other allergensOralAcute exposureOral: increasing doses of mustard (80–6480 mg)14 showed positive mustard challenge (12 had oral allergy syndrome, 1 had more severe angioedema with bronchial asthma, and 1 had anaphylaxis)Resolved after symptomatic treatment Possibly

Pantuck et al. 1979 [20]SCEDMultisite hospital and homes1021–32  yrsHealthyCabbage and Brussels sproutsOral7 days200 g/d cabbage and 300 g/d Brusselss sproutsAll showed accelerated phenacetin metabolismResolved after diet was discontinuedLikely

Pantuck et al. 1984 [21]SCEDMultisite hospital and homes1023–35  yrsHealthyCabbage and Brusselss sproutsOral10 days200 g/d cabbage and 300 g/d Brusselss sproutsAll showed accelerated acetaminophen metabolism, enhanced glucuronide conjugationResolved after diet was discontinuedLikely

Ovesen et al. 1988 [22]SCEDMulti-site hospital and homes1022–40  yrs HealthyBrusselss sprouts, lightly steamedOral2 weeks400 g/dAll showed accelerated warfarin metabolismResolved after diet was discontinued Likely

Vovolis et al. 2009 [23]SCED Hospital6 20–38  yrs Recurrent allergic reactions after consuming cabbage. AtopyCabbage (raw versus cooked) and a variety of other allergensOral and topical allergy testsAcute exposureNAAll showed positive skin prick tests and IgE tests to raw cabbage; positive skin prick tests to a variety of allergensNA Possibly

Nonsafety trials Rosen et al. 1998 [24] CCT Hospital 18 2.5–61 yrs Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis Indole-3-carbinol supplement Oral 9–24 months 200 mg twice a day for adults; for kids based on weight Imbalance and tremor in one adult who was given twice the original dose by the researchers and unsteadiness with nausea in two pediatric patient at who by mistake took higher doses Full resolution: in adult after returning to original dose. In pediatric cases spontaneously Possibly

Kensler et al. 2005 [25] RCT Community 100/100 25–65 yrs Healthy Broccoli sprout infusion Oral 12 days Not specified No adverse events NA NA

Singh et al. 1997 [26]RCTMultisite hospital and homes120/118Mean: 48 yrsAcute myocardial infarctionMustard oil Oral1 year20 g/dNo adverse eventsNANA

Jood et al. 2001 [27]CCTCommunity 33/3310–12 yrs Nutritional deficits: low serum hemoglobin and retinol Cauliflower leaves powder, in biscuits, or shakarpara Oral4 monthsNot specifiedNo adverse eventsNANA

Rosen and Bryson 2004 [28]CCTMulti-site hospital and homes33 5–71 yrsRecurrent respiratory papillomatosisIndole-3-carbinol supplement Oral 10–86 months 200 mg twice a day for adults; pediatric dosage was determined by weight No adverse eventsNANA

Riedl et al. 2009 [29]CCTSingle site59/5>18 yrsHealthyBroccoli sprout homogenate Oral 3 days (once per day) 25–200 g broccoli per ingestion No adverse eventsNANA

Dinkova- Kostova et al. 2007 [30]SCEDSingle site17 25–51 yrsHealthyBroccoli sprouts extract with daikon myrosinase, dissolved in 80% acetone and 20% waterTopicalApplied twice Up to 40 nmol No adverse eventsNANA

1RCT, randomized controlled trial; CCT, controlled clinical trial; SCED, single-case experimental design trials.
2Comparator numbers appear only for controlled trials.
3Route of exposure.
4Duration of exposure.
5Degree of resolution in cases were adverse events were reported; NA, not applicable.
6The degree of association between the intervention and the adverse event, as rated by reviewers; NA, not applicable.