Table 1: Toll-like receptors and their corresponding ligands.

TLRExogenous ligands (PAMPs)Endogenous ligands (DAMPs)

TLR1Triacyl lipopeptide
Soluble factors
β-defensin 3
with TLR1or 6)
Lipoglycans (mycobacterium)
Lipoteichoic acids (gram-positive bacteria)
Peptidoglycan (gram-positive bacteria)
Zymosan (yeast)
HSP 60, HSP70, gp96, β-defensin 3, HMGB1, surfactant proteins,
HMGB1-nucleosome complexes, serum amyloid A, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, antiphospholipid antibodies,
cardiac myosin, PAUF, CEP, monosodium urate crystals, Biglycan, versican, hyaluronic acid fragments
TLR4 LPS (gram-negative bacteria)
Mannan (Candida)
Envelope protein (virus)
Hsp70 (exogenous)
HMGB1, surfactant proteins, β-defensin 2, HSP60, HSP70, HSP72, HSP22, Gp96, S100A8, S100A9, neutrophil elastase, antiphospholipid antibodies, lactoferrin, serum amyloid A, oxidized LDL, saturated fatty acids, resistin, PAUF, monosodium urate crystals, Biglycan, fibronectin EDA, fibrinogen, tenascin C, Heparin sulphate fragments, Hyaluronic acid fragments
TLR5 Flagellin (gram-negative bacteria) Undetermined
TLR6 Diacylpolypeptide
Lipoteichoic acid (gram-positive bacteria)
TLR7/8 ss RNA (virus) Antiphospholipid antibodies, cardiac myosin, ss RNA,
TLR9 CpG motif (bacteria, virus)IgG-chromatin complexes, mitochondrial DNA
TLR10 Diacylated peptide?Immunostimulatory CpG motifs
TLR11Profilin-like molecule Undetermined