Figure 2: The concept of force isotropy applied to cells: (a) anisotropic and (b) isotropic cytoskeletal tension caused by cell contraction either in the niche, or during cell migration through the extracellular matrix; (c) anisotropic and (d) isotropic extracellular forces; 𝜎 is cyclic matrix stress, 𝜏 is cyclic fluid-induced shear, and 𝑝 is cyclic pressurization.