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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012, Article ID 891961, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/891961
Review Article

Alterations of the TP53 Gene in Gastric and Esophageal Carcinogenesis

1Universidade do Sagrado Coração (USC), Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação, 17011-160 Bauru, SP, Brazil
2Department of Biology, UNESP, São Paulo State University, Rua Cristóvão Colombo 2265, 15054-000 Campus São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil

Received 5 April 2012; Revised 27 June 2012; Accepted 12 July 2012

Academic Editor: Paul W. Doetsch

Copyright © 2012 Marilanda Ferreira Bellini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

TP53 genes is one of more important tumor suppressor gene, which acts as a potent transcription factor with fundamental role in the maintenance of genetic stability. The development of esophageal and gastric cancers is a multistep process resulting in successive accumulation of genetic alterations that culminates in the malignant transformation. Thus, this study highlights the participation of the main genetic alterations of the TP53 gene in esophageal and gastric carcinogenesis. Among these changes, high frequency of TP53 mutations, loss of heterozygosity (LOH), overexpression of the p53 protein, and consequently loss of p53 function, which would be early events in esophageal and gastric cancers, as well as an important biomarker of the prognosis and treatment response. Furthermore, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of TP53 have been implicated in the development and prognosis of several cancers, mainly TP53 codon 72 polymorphism whose role has been extensively studied in relation to susceptibility for esophageal and gastric cancer development.