Table 3: Effects of Panax ginseng extract on skin aging.

Effects of the total ginseng saponin fraction (100 to 500 μg/mL) on luciferase reporter gene assays in human dermal fibroblast (in vitro).
Effects of the total ginseng saponin fraction (100 to 500 μg/mL) on type I collagen in human dermal fibroblast (in vitro).
 The total saponin fraction (100 to 500 μg/mL) increased type I procollagen synthesis [51].

Effects of red ginseng extract (20 and 60 mg/kg, po) on acute UVB-induced skin aging in mice
 The extract inhibited the increases in epidermis and dermis thickness induced by UVB [52].

Effects of red ginseng extract (20 mg/kg, ip or topical application of 0.2% cream) on chronic UVB-irradiated skin damage in hairless mice.
 The extract reduced wrinkling and tumor incidence [53].

Effects of ginsenoside Rb1 (100 fg, 10 pg, or 1 ng/mouse, topical application) on chronic UVB-irradiated skin aging in hairless mice.
 Ginsenoside Rb1 inhibited the increase in skin thickness, wrinkling, and epidermis in UVB-irradiated hairless mice [31].

Effects of red ginseng extract (a diet containing 0.5 and 2.5% red ginseng extract) on UVB-irradiated skin aging in hairless mice.
 The extract reduced wrinkling, the mRNA level of procollagen type I, and the MMP-1 level [54].

Healthy female volunteers over 40 years of age were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive either red ginseng extract (3 g/day) or placebo for 24 weeks. (Clinical study).
 Red ginseng extract caused an improvement in facial wrinkling and increase in type I procollagen synthesis [55].