Table 4: Effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on the thickness of the epidermis and extracellular matrix (ECM) of the dermis at week 12 in UVB-irradiated hairless mice [31].

Epidermis (μm)ECM (μm) in dermis

Normal mice 1 4 . 7 4 ± 1 . 1 1 * 3 3 2 . 5 1 ± 2 3 . 1 8 *
Vehicle-treated UVB-irradiated mice (control) 1 4 2 . 5 9 ± 2 5 . 3 7 6 3 2 . 3 2 ± 3 1 . 9 6

+Ginsenoside Rb1
 (100 fg/mouse) 4 6 . 0 0 ± 6 . 2 6 * 5 6 1 . 8 6 ± 4 5 . 2 2
 (10 pg/mouse) 4 9 . 2 4 ± 4 . 7 3 * 5 6 0 . 6 7 ± 4 4 . 8 1
 (1 ng/mouse) 3 9 . 8 4 ± 6 . 2 6 * 5 8 5 . 6 3 ± 3 1 . 3 5

The initial dose of UVB was set at 36 mJ/cm2, which was subsequently increased to 54 mJ/cm2 at weeks 1–4, 72 mJ/cm2 at weeks 4–7, 108 mJ/cm2 at weeks 7–10, and finally to 122 mJ/cm2 at weeks 10–12 in male albino hairless HOS: HR-1 mice. The frequency of UVB irradiation was set at three times per week. Ginsenoside Rb1 (100 fg, 10 pg, and 1 ng/mouse) was applied topically to the dorsal region of each mouse every day for 12 weeks. The dorsal skin samples (about 3 cm2) removed at week 12 were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 5 μm thickness, deparaffinized, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Azan. Four different microscopic fields (×200 magnification) per plate were photographed. The thickness of the epidermis and dermis thickness were measured from the samples stained by HE and Azan, using a Digimatic Caliper.
Values are the mean ± SE for 6 mice. *Significantly different from UVB-irradiated hairless mice (control), 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 .