Table 2: Representative studies on scaffold-based tissue-engineered blood vessels.

Publication yearScaffoldSource/signalReported resultsType of studyReferences

1999Tubular biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffoldsSMC and ECs from bovine aorta/pulsatile perfusion system in a bioreactor with supplemented medium(1) the gross appearance of the vessels was identical to that of native arteries
(2) SMCs migrated inward to envelop PGA fragments in the vessel wall, resulting in a smooth luminal surface onto which bovine aortic endothelial cells were easily seeded
(3) the bioreactor system increased the vessel wall thickness and suture retention strengths, as well as influenced the vessel’s contraction
(4) four weeks after implantation, autologous explants showed highly organized structure and minimal inflammation
in vitro
in vivo in swine model

2000Microvessels with fibronectin-collagen 3D gels Umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)/Bcl-2(1) human umbilical-vein EC (HUVEC) within mixed fibronectin-collagen 3D gels induced tube formation
(2) remarkable inosculation of these preformed (HUVEC and gel) networks with the circulatory system of SCD mice
(3) overexpression of Bcl-2 in HUVEC resulted to the formation of perfused vascular structures invested by mouse pericyte and smooth-muscle cells that remodel into mature vessels
in vitro
in vivo in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)/mice

2004Polyglycolic acid-poly-L-lactic acid (PGA-PLLA) scaffoldsEPC from human umbilical cord were used to generate EPC-derived EC(1) EPC-derived EC can be expanded in vitro and preserved endothelial phenotype after seeding
(2) EPC-derived EC seeded with human smooth muscle cells form microvessels on porous PGA-PLLA scaffolds
(3) functional microvessels were evident 7–10 days after implantation into mice
in vitro
in vivo in nude mice

2005Collagen/elastin tubular scaffoldsSMC under pulsatile flow condition(1) SMCs were uniformly distributed throughout EDC/NHS crosslinked collagen/elastin construct
(2) collagen fibers were oriented to circumferential direction
in vitro [68]

2005Sandwich chitosan tubular scaffoldRabbit Smooth muscle cells by employing industrial knitting process and thermally-induced phase-separation techniques(1) chitosan scaffold showed proper swelling property and high suture retention
(2) burst strength of the scaffold is 4000 mmHg
(3) scaffold degraded after 2 months
(4) SMCs were well grown and distributed in the scaffold
in vitro [69]

2007Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) films and scaffoldsBaboon endothelial progenitor cells (BaEPCs) and baboon smooth muscle cells (BaSMCs)(1) BaSMCs were distributed throughout the scaffolds and synthesized ECM
(2) BaSMC-seeded constructs provided suitable surfaces for BaEPC adhesion
(3) cells maintained their specific phenotypes
in vitro [70]

2008PGA (polyglycolic acid) fiber meshSMC/pulsatile stimulation from a Bioreactor(1) elastic vessel wall was formed after 8 weeks of dynamic engineering.
(2) histological examination showed well-orientated smooth muscle cells and collagenous fibers
in vitro [71]

20093D collagen/fibro-nectin gels supported by a nonwoven, degradable PGA (polyglycolic acid) matrixHUVECs, EC and SMC(1) after transplantation PGA-supported gels, Bcl-2-HUVEC retained the ability to form microvessels invested by mouse SMC.
(2) grafts containing both Bcl-2-HUVEC and HASMC displayed greater numbers of smooth muscle actinin expressing cells associated with human EC-lined arteriole-like microvessels
(3) SMC can accelerate, stabilize, and promote remodeling of tissue engineered microvessels
(4) EC-SMC coengraftment and cotransplantation in PGA-supported protein gels may have broader application for perfusing bioengineered tissues
in vitro
in vivo in severe combined immune-deficient (SCID)/mice

2010PGA (polyglycolic acid) unwoven meshSMC derived from hASCs/pulsatile stimulation from a Bioreactor, TGF-β1, BMP-4(1) hASCs acquired SMC phenotype with SMC- related markers expression
(2) under pulsatile stimulation, hASCs can be SMC cell source with biomechanical strength matchable to the native vessels
in vitro [42]

2012Macroporous nanofibrous scaffoldESCs stimulated with retinoic acid with LacZ genetic labeling under SMC alpha promoter(1) RA enhanced SMC gene expression while inhibiting pluripotency of ESC
(2) implanted cells in mice maintained LacZ staining within the construct without teratoma formation
(3) ESC-promising source of SMC for therapeutic vascular engineering and disease model application
in vitro
in vivo in nude mice

2012Biotubular scaffold composed of polyglycolide knitted fiber, and an L-lactide and -caprolactone copolymer sponge crosslinked to Amniotic FluidAmniotic Fluid(1) well-formed vasculature without stenosis or thrombosis, and calcification
(2) cell-free vasculature with good quality and adaptation in shape
(3) applicable to pediatric surgery
(4) the use of Amniotic Fluid shortened EBV fabrication
in vitro
in vivo in the inferior vena cava of Canines

2012Tissue engineered blood vessel from amniotic membraneAmniotic membrane (AM) as the natural membrane, endothelial cells/physiological shear stress (SS)
(1) shear stress application maintained the intact monolayer of EC in the vessel’s lumen
(2) endothelial cells (ECs) are aligned in long axis parallel to the blood flow
(3) shear stress also increased PECAM-1 and E-cadherin and integrin α γβ3 expressions
(4) amniotic fluid tube reduced the TEBV fabrication through sheet-based engineering
in vitro [74]

2012Tubular hydrogels of circumferentially aligned peptide amphiphile nanofibersSMCs by applying low shear stress and ionic crosslinking(1) arterial cell scaffolds encapsulates and orient vascular cells
(2) direct cell organization without external stimulation or gel compaction
in vitro [75]