Figure 3: Effect of GSC extract on the mRNA expression of MMP-3 and -9 in the colon tissue of mice with DSS-induced colitis and in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. ((a), (b)) Levels of MMP-3 and -9 mRNA in colon tissue were determined by quantitative ΔΔCT Real-time-PCR, using GAPDH mRNA as the internal control. The graph shown is representative of three independent experiments ( , versus control; , versus DSS). (c) MMP-9 mRNA levels in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were measured by Real-Time-PCR. Cells were incubated for 5 h with 1 μg/mL of LPS in the absence or presence of GSC extract. GSC extract was added 1 h before the incubation with LPS. GAPDH was used as the internal control. Data are expressed as fold change in mRNA transcript levels relative to the LPS-stimulated control. (d) Zymographic image of cell lysates of LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages after preincubation with GSC extract.